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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. 28 Oct 01.


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The Timeless Universe
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Footnote 1 - The Differentiation of Space

by A. C. Sturt cont.


PART I

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

2. Redshift in the Stochastically Regenerated Universe

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 3 - Light Frequency Compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

The Redshift Exponential




PART I

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

2. Redshift in the Stochastically Regenerated Universe

PART III

The Meaning of Mass The Redshift Exponential

Absolute Space
Absolute space is volume which contains absolutely nothing. Every cubic metre of absolute space is identical to every other. There is no feature to differentiate it. Absolute space is homogeneous through time.
Observed Space
Absolute space is an impossibility in the timeless Universe, because it is permeated in every part by fields which are always in existence, and by electromagnetic radiation and probably massy particles which may be transient i.e. passing through. So:

  1. A cubic metre of observed space would contain any massy particles which were either suspended in space or happened to be passing through the cubic metre 'sample' at the instant when it was taken.

  2. Gravitational Fields

    1. a cubic metre of observed space in situ would be permeated by a background gravitational field which would be the vector sum of all the gravitational fields from all the massy bodies in all the rest of the Universe. In an infinite Universe the background gravitational fields would be isotropic.

    2. a cubic metre in situ would also be permeated by gravitational fields of massy bodies in the locality e.g. Sirius, which would be directional and diminishing with the square of the distance from the body. This component would be isotropic with respect to the massive body from which it originated, but anisotropic with respect to the axes of the cubic metre.

    3. The resultant gravitational field which permeates the cubic metre would therefore be the vector sum of the background and the local gravitational fields. The vector sum would have a component in the direction of the path from an observer to the cubic metre sample, which the observer could in principle detect, and a component perpendicular to it, which the observer could not detect.

    4. there would also be distortions caused by disturbances to the combined gravitational field by local phenomena.

  3. Electromagnetic Fields

    1. similarly there would be a background electromagnetic field, which would be isotropic, and a local electromagnetic field which would be the result of local phenomena, and therefore anisotropic with respect to the axes of the cubic metre. There would also be transient electromagnetic disturbances.

    2. there would also be any electromagnetic radiation, say photons, which was passing through the cubic metre at the instant the 'sample' was taken. This radiation would be directional.

  4. Because of all these phenomena every cubic metre would be different from every other. Space would be differentiated.

  5. What is detectable depends on where the cubic metre is located relative to an observer. The observer would be faced with different paths in every direction. Each path would be characterised by the sum of all vectors along the path. Thus as far as the observer is concerned, space would have a differentiation specific to his own location. For an observer space is anisotropic.

  6. Paths reaching other observers in different locations in space would be differently differentiated.

  7. Phenomena which depend on transit through space will be influenced by the differentiation of all the cubic metres along the way. So if the frequency of light is attenuated by passage through space, the degree of attenuation will depend on the direction of the path towards the observer. The size of the redshift will depend on the direction of the source from Earth.
  8. Spatial Reference Points

    Points in space are established by reference to the directions of light from stars. However, if space is differentiated as proposed, it may seem that each cubic metre could be identified independently of the rest, a sort of reference point. The problem is that it could be identified only by the redshift of stars, which is redundant if their direction is already being measured. Gravitational differentiation is different, and a point of gravitational reference would have to be established by accelerating a mass through it.






absolute




observed



massy particles


gravitational field


background




local




resultant





stochastic





electromagnetic fields




passing photons

space differentiated


observed space anisotropic




different for each observer

redshift depends on direction through space





spatial points of reference
Copyright A. C. Sturt 23 October 2001 continued on Page 7
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