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Churinga Publishing

 

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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 14 January 2002, minor edit 3 July 2004

 



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The Timeless Universe

 

II. The Redshift Reinterpreted

 

 

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Footnote links below

 

by A. C. Sturt cont

 

 

 

 

 

 



PART I

 

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 3 - Light Frequency compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I

 

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 3 - Light Frequency compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential

 

 

 

 

2. Redshift in The Stochastically Regenerated Universe in Equilibrium - A New Model

 

The redshifts of stars indicates how far they are from Earth, the conclusion drawn by the first observers of the phenomenon. If we ignore the further deduction that they also indicate velocities, then we are left with the conclusion that stars are a long way away at a range of cosmic distances from Earth.

 

This is quite compatible with the model of a Universe in equilibrium, infinite in time and space, and with stochastic regeneration and redistribution. The equation which relates redshift and distance for a star or galaxy then becomes:

 

where

λ = the spectral wavelength of light from the unexcited atom on Earth.

λ' = the spectral wavelength of the redshifted light from the star or galaxy,

A = the constant of proportionality

S = the distance of the star from Earth in appropriate units.

 

By re-arranging the equation it can be seen that for distance S:

 

 

for velocity V

 

 

i.e. the first derivative with respect to time, and acceleration is

 

 

i.e. the second derivative with respect to time.

 

If redshift is not an effect generated by a star's movement, it has then to be explained why the frequency of light should be attenuated during its passage through space. It is proposed here that space is not void but permeated entirely and isotropically by fields which cause the attenuation of the frequency, but do not reduce the velocity, of electromagnetic radiation. The only possible candidates are gravity and electromagnetism. As a photon travels through space at the speed of light, the gravitational/electromagnetic field progressively reduces its energy. The reduction of the energy of the photon would therefore be proportional to distance travelled. This reduced energy level manifests itself as a lower frequency, the redshift.

 

There may be a precedent for this in the Einstein shift, the shift in the frequency of radiation from a massive body to a lower than 'natural' frequency. This was predicted by Einstein, and has actually been observed for Sirius.

 

It is further suggested here that the energy which is removed from the photon is transported by/through the gravitational/electromagnetic field to the rest of the Universe at the speed of light, a mechanism for Universal redistribution, though that is not to assume that this is the only phenomenon which affects wavelength.

 

The implication is that space itself may not be homogeneous. There are certainly heterogeneous pockets like Sirius, which are observed to affect electromagnetic radiation. But in fact all bodies in space would constitute manifestations that it is heterogeneous, either because heterogeneities have given rise to the bodies, or because the bodies give rise to gravitational/electromagnetic distortions. Space itself would be differentiated, and the passage of light from any body in space to an observer on Earth would therefore be likely to depend on the heterogeneity of the regions through which it passed. Thus phenomena which may not be proportional to distance may affect redshift, so that the above equations would represent average relationships (see Footnote 1- Differentiation of Space).

 

According to this model the whole of space would be filled with electromagnetic radiation travelling away from sources at the speed of light, continuously losing energy until it is finally dissipated down through the spectrum of frequencies and disappears. Superimposed on this background radiation would be the products of stochastic cosmic events, centres of radiation and gravitational/ electromagnetic disturbances. In this case one might expect waves and interference patterns.

 

The corollary would be that time intervals too, when observed by electromagnetic radiation, may appear to be differentiated. For astronomical observations there is no other way of observing cosmically distant phenomena (see Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time).

 

The model suggests that the velocity of light 'in vacuo' is a limiting value for interaction with the postulated Universal gravitational/electromagnetic field. In effect photons travel as fast as they can, but the field interacts with them to limit their velocity to the speed of light which is always observed. However, this alone would not be sufficient to explain the retention of frequency which the model requires, if the motion of the source is not to have an effect.

 

It may be that photons in a train of electromagnetic radiation interact with each other to maintain frequency, which could involve some means of compensating for the movement of the source, say by restraining photon emission to keep frequency, a sort of resonance effect. Or alternatively, there may be some mechanism internal to each atom which compensates intervals of light emission for the atom's velocity. The atom would then have to be able to measure its velocity relative to the Universal electromagnetic field. Similar considerations might apply to the receiver when the light is captured (see Footnote 3 Light Frequency Compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms). Such co-ordination must not consume energy, or the frequency would be reduced. Spin requires a separate analysis (see Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies).

The same sort of effects may also reveal themselves in the probability distributions inherent in the diffraction of light, which are also homogeneous through time. How would errant particles, all acting differently and independently know that they are supposed to fall within such a distribution?

 

The opposite sort of interaction occurs in refraction, in which the velocity of electromagnetic radiation is reduced by interaction with the atoms of the denser medium, but frequency is maintained.

 

The analysis suggests that caution is required in interpreting experiments, including thought experiments concerning light and clocks, which involve dividing a beam of light and sending the resulting beams by different paths to a conclusion. The frequency of light from the same source may be attenuated to different extents if the beams take different paths through space. It cannot be assumed that observers will receive the same light, even if they receive it at the same velocity. Any difference of frequency of light between the beams would be a way of telling the time!

 

Finally, it is a matter of speculation what sort of quanta or particles can be progressively emitted from a photon in its progress across the Universe. A gradual loss of energy from a photon seems incompatible with the continuous ejection of lesser particles, or whatever form packets of energy are considered to take. It might be considered as the transfer of a sort of tension to the rest of the Universe through the gravitational field. For the Einstein redshift it has been described as gravitational potential energy. However, it has to be considered how far apparent quantisation might be a function of the constraints under which we are forced to observe phenomena.

 

A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

 


 

 

 

new model

 

 

 

 

 

Universe in equilibrium

 

 

 

redshift proportional to distance

 

equations for:

 

 

 

 

 

 

distance

 

 

 

 

 

 

velocity

 

 

 

acceleration

 

 

further analysis of relationship exponential see Part IV

 

 

origin of redshift

frequency attenuation

 

electromagnetic field

 

 

Einstein redshift

 

 

 

feedback

 

 

 

differentiation of space

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

stochastic cosmic events

 

 

 

differentiation of observed time intervals

 

 

velocity of light the limiting value

 

 

 

 

photon interaction?

 

photon emission

 

 

frequency compensation mechanism

 

diffraction probability distribution

 

 

refraction

 

 

light experiments

 

 

 

 

photonic energy loss

 

 

 

constraints of observation

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 7

 

 

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