
Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt 


The Timeless Universe II. The Redshift Reinterpreted 
Footnote
links below 

by
A. C. Sturt cont 




PART I 3.Model
of the Expanding Universe 4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model Table
 Stages of the Expansion Model PART II 1.
Redshift  Conventional View Footnote
1  Differentiation of Space Footnote
2  Observational Frameworks of Time Footnote
3  Light Frequency compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms Footnote
4  Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies PART III PART IV PART I 3.Model
of the Expanding Universe 4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model Table
 Stages of the Expansion Model PART II 1.
Redshift  Conventional View Footnote
1  Differentiation of Space Footnote
2  Observational Frameworks of Time Footnote
3  Light Frequency compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms Footnote
4  Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies PART III PART IV 

2. Redshift in The Stochastically Regenerated
Universe in Equilibrium  A New Model The redshifts of stars
indicates how far they are from Earth, the conclusion drawn by the first
observers of the phenomenon. If we ignore the further deduction that they
also indicate velocities, then we are left with the conclusion that stars are
a long way away at a range of cosmic distances from Earth. This is quite compatible
with the model of a Universe in equilibrium, infinite in time and space, and
with stochastic regeneration and redistribution. The equation which relates
redshift and distance for a star or galaxy then becomes: where λ =
the spectral wavelength of light from the unexcited atom on Earth. λ' = the spectral wavelength of the
redshifted light from the star or galaxy, A = the constant of proportionality S = the distance of the star from Earth in
appropriate units. By rearranging the
equation it can be seen that for distance S: for velocity V i.e. the first derivative
with respect to time, and acceleration is i.e. the second derivative
with respect to time. If redshift is not an
effect generated by a star's movement, it has then to be explained why the
frequency of light should be attenuated during its passage through space. It
is proposed here that space is not void but permeated entirely and
isotropically by fields which cause the attenuation of the frequency, but do
not reduce the velocity, of electromagnetic radiation. The only possible
candidates are gravity and electromagnetism. As a photon travels through
space at the speed of light, the gravitational/electromagnetic field
progressively reduces its energy. The reduction of the energy of the photon
would therefore be proportional to distance travelled. This reduced energy
level manifests itself as a lower frequency, the redshift. There may be a precedent
for this in the Einstein shift, the shift in the frequency of radiation from
a massive body to a lower than 'natural' frequency. This was predicted by
Einstein, and has actually been observed for Sirius. It is further suggested
here that the energy which is removed from the photon is transported
by/through the gravitational/electromagnetic field to the rest of the
Universe at the speed of light, a mechanism for Universal redistribution,
though that is not to assume that this is the only phenomenon which affects
wavelength. The implication is that
space itself may not be homogeneous. There are certainly heterogeneous
pockets like Sirius, which are observed to affect electromagnetic radiation.
But in fact all bodies in space would constitute manifestations that it is
heterogeneous, either because heterogeneities have given rise to the bodies,
or because the bodies give rise to gravitational/electromagnetic distortions.
Space itself would be differentiated, and the passage of light from any body
in space to an observer on Earth would therefore be likely to depend on the
heterogeneity of the regions through which it passed. Thus phenomena which
may not be proportional to distance may affect redshift, so that the above
equations would represent average relationships (see Footnote 1
Differentiation of Space). According to this model the
whole of space would be filled with electromagnetic radiation travelling away
from sources at the speed of light, continuously losing energy until it is
finally dissipated down through the spectrum of frequencies and disappears.
Superimposed on this background radiation would be the products of stochastic
cosmic events, centres of radiation and gravitational/ electromagnetic
disturbances. In this case one might expect waves and interference patterns. The
corollary would be that time intervals too, when observed by electromagnetic
radiation, may appear to be differentiated. For astronomical observations
there is no other way of observing cosmically distant phenomena (see Footnote
2  Observational Frameworks of Time). The model suggests that the
velocity of light 'in vacuo' is a limiting value for interaction with the
postulated Universal gravitational/electromagnetic field. In effect photons
travel as fast as they can, but the field interacts with them to limit their
velocity to the speed of light which is always observed. However, this alone
would not be sufficient to explain the retention of frequency which the model
requires, if the motion of the source is not to have an effect. It
may be that photons in a train of electromagnetic radiation interact with
each other to maintain frequency, which could involve some means of
compensating for the movement of the source, say by restraining photon
emission to keep frequency, a sort of resonance effect. Or alternatively,
there may be some mechanism internal to each atom which compensates intervals
of light emission for the atom's velocity. The atom would then have to be
able to measure its velocity relative to the Universal electromagnetic field.
Similar considerations might apply to the receiver when the light is captured
(see Footnote 3 – Light Frequency Compensation Mechanism of Individual
Atoms). Such coordination must not consume energy, or the frequency would be
reduced. Spin requires a separate analysis (see Footnote 4  Redshift and Rotation
of Celestial Bodies). The
same sort of effects may also reveal themselves in the probability
distributions inherent in the diffraction of light, which are also
homogeneous through time. How would errant particles, all acting differently
and independently know that they are supposed to fall within such a distribution? The opposite sort of
interaction occurs in refraction, in which the velocity of electromagnetic
radiation is reduced by interaction with the atoms of the denser medium, but
frequency is maintained. The analysis suggests that
caution is required in interpreting experiments, including thought
experiments concerning light and clocks, which involve dividing a beam of
light and sending the resulting beams by different paths to a conclusion. The
frequency of light from the same
source may be attenuated to different extents if the beams take different
paths through space. It cannot be assumed that observers will receive the
same light, even if they receive it at the same velocity. Any difference of
frequency of light between the beams would be a way of telling the time! Finally, it is a matter of speculation
what sort of quanta or particles can be progressively emitted from a photon
in its progress across the Universe. A gradual loss of energy from a photon
seems incompatible with the continuous ejection of lesser particles, or
whatever form packets of energy are considered to take. It might be
considered as the transfer of a sort of tension to the rest of the Universe
through the gravitational field. For the Einstein redshift it has been
described as gravitational potential energy. However, it has to be considered
how far apparent quantisation might be a function of the constraints under
which we are forced to observe phenomena. A. C. Sturt 27 September
2001 

new model Universe in
equilibrium redshift proportional
to distance equations for: distance velocity acceleration further analysis of
relationship – exponential – see Part IV origin of redshift frequency attenuation electromagnetic field Einstein redshift feedback differentiation of
space stochastic cosmic
events differentiation of
observed time intervals velocity of light the
limiting value photon interaction? photon emission frequency
compensation mechanism diffraction
probability distribution refraction light experiments photonic energy loss constraints of
observation 
Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001 

Churinga
Publishing 