PAGE 1 Churinga Publishing v
Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. 27 Oct 01.


BACK
The Timeless Universe
NEXT PAGE
by A. C. Sturt cont.
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF THE UNIVERSE ACCORDING TO THE EXPANSION MODEL
Stage Time after Zero State Inherent Entropy Homogeneity through Time
The Beginning Time zero kernel of energy of infinitely small magnitude open to discussion no time (or space)
Stage I 10-32 sec plasma of primary or fundamental particles, quarks, leptons, antimatter, formed by explosion of the kernel absolute minimum homogeneous (as a gas cloud)
Stage II 10-4 sec plasma of secondary particles e.g. protons and neutrons formed by combination of the primary fundamental particles. The transition occurred because the Universe cooled. step increase to a state of entropy which was very low (because of a decrease of temperature sufficient to allow particle agglomeration) homogeneous (as a gas cloud) still
Stage III 3x105 years atoms of hydrogen and helium form by condensation of secondary particles, Universe becomes more transparent. further step increase to state of low entropy (gas cloud) homogeneous (as a gas cloud)
Stage IV 109 years clouds of hydrogen condense to form stars increase in entropy no longer homogeneous
Stage IVa >109 years stars form galaxies and clusters of galaxies further increase in entropy not homogeneous
Stage IVb >109 years some stars begin to make heavier nuclei by fusion increase in entropy not homogeneous
Stage IVc >109 years some stars collapse at the end of their lives, and explode in supernovae explosions, producing even heavier atoms and dispersing them increase in entropy from manufacture of heavy elements and dispersion not homogeneous
Stage V 15 x 109 years i.e. today all processes continue. Add black holes e.g. at the centre of galaxies, as in Milky Way. Add dark matter, which forms a large part of the Universe. ever increasing, as the Universe cools down not homogeneous
The Future for ever, from today endless expansion. Increasing separation of component parts until they eventually lose touch. No stars in the sky. entropy ever increasing to a maximum not homogeneous
Copyright A. C. Sturt 21 September 2001 continued on Page 5
Churinga Publishing ^