|PAGE 1||Churinga Publishing||v|
|Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page update 14 January 2002, minor edit 30 June 2004.
|The Timeless Universe||
|I. A Model of Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution
by A. C. Sturt cont.
4. Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model
These objections may be met by a model of stochastic regeneration and redistribution. The model is consistent with all the observations which have been made in space and in the laboratory. All trigonometric calculations of distances are accepted, because they, like all mathematics, are homogeneous through time. The model, in which the Universe is considered as a system decomposed into parts, is as follows.
The Universe is infinite in time and space. It had no beginning, and will have no end. All the phenomena of the Universe are basically the rearrangement of its fundamental particles, which are homogeneous through time, and therefore never generated or destroyed. In such a Universe there can be no loss of energy from, or gain of energy to, the total system. There is nowhere from which energy can come or to which it can go. Nor can there can be a change of entropy in the system as a whole, because there can be no loss of heat from or gain of heat to the total system. This may be considered as adiabatic.
The Universe is homogeneous through time in the sense that the composition of the whole system cannot change; there is no cosmic time. Nor can it be observed to change by some 'external' observer. It would be like observing Brownian motion with the naked eye. However, locally, which means in parts of the system, there are changes of entropy, because the parts of the Universe are not homogeneous through time. Therefore it is possible to observe galactic time, intergalactic time, stellar time, planetary orbital time and diurnal time. When increases of entropy occur in particular parts, they must be balanced by decreases elsewhere in the system.
Every part of the Universe is in one of the five Stages described above. Every part of the Universe changes from Stage to Stage i.e. there is an endless cycle of change. This refers to change in the individual parts; the Universe does not change from stage to stage as a whole. Every part of the Universe goes back at some point to the fundamental particle stage, Stage I, in which new recombinations occur. The cycle is therefore as follows:
Stage I - fundamental particles in part of the Universe, leading to
In this way the basic structure of the Universe is not determined for all time at a single occurrence, that is a single Stage II; it is endlessly repeated to provide the opportunity for a new, statistical distribution of products. The results of regeneration would on statistical grounds be primarily hydrogen and helium. Heavy elements would be endlessly re-made and distributed. On the macro scale, new structures would continuously be formed.
Regeneration of fundamental particles takes place in zones which occur stochastically in time and space. There is no reason to believe that the regeneration process would be confined to special parts of the Universe, which would in effect exclude the rest from the workings of the Universe. That would result in progressive degeneration of the whole system. So a redistribution model is needed. Nor is there is any reason why only one phenomenon should give rise to regeneration or redistribution. Candidates might be supernova explosions, black holes (if some way were found to get stuff out again) or even something going on in or behind clouds of dark matter, which cannot be observed because they are not transparent (cf. Stages I and II). The only condition is that every part of the Universe must be reduced to fundamental particles eventually and stochastically, and during an infinitely long time, repeatedly. However in timescales which are meaningful for us, they may appear to be correlated with particular parts of the system.
In systems terms the parts of the Universe must interact. The nature of the interaction is gravitational, magnetic and electromagnetic, and through the transfer of materials.
The prime causes of regeneration are the rotational and translational energy of galaxies i.e. the energy associated with their movement through space, the movements which bring bodies into close interaction with each other. This interaction translates in its turn into gravitational and nuclear forces resulting in fusion, fission and redistribution. In extreme circumstances the interaction will result in a Stage I process, the formation of fundamental particles, thus beginning the whole process again.
The model suggests a system in a kind of equilibrium, but there is no possibility of displacing it to see whether it returns to the position of stability, which is the criterion applied to ordinary physical systems, i.e. subsystems of the whole system. However it does imply that there must be a mechanism for compensating for any disturbance in one part of the Universe by changes in another, or perhaps all others, so that the result in the system as a whole is no change. There is the obvious transfer of material, but this cannot be fast or extensive enough to account for the phenomenon. The other candidates are: electromagnetic radiation, which certainly occurs, because we can see it, but also does not seem to be quantitatively sufficient; electromagnetic fields, which could be; and gravitational fields, which seem to be the most likely. Gravitational fields would not preclude electromagnetic fields also having an effect. The corollary would be that these fields permeate the whole Universe, that is the whole of space. The whole of space would be under some sort of gravitational or electromagnetic tension, which would be disturbed by the effects of the processes of redistribution. Such gravitational tension would also give rise to inertia, the interaction of mass with the gravitational field, as in the definition of force.
There needs to be some way of introducing rotation into a stochastic model, as into all models of the Universe, because rotation certainly occurs and it implies some non-random alignment. If galaxies, which consist of physically separated parts in the material sense, rotate as entities, there must be some means of co-ordination between the parts. This means links through gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields.
Gravity tends to produce spherical shapes whether gaseous or molten. The passage of material past a sphere will produce trajectories or orbits leading to collision or elliptical orbits or ejection. The only problem arises if the directions of spins are shown to be coordinated throughout the Universe. In total they should be random, that is, there should be no cosmic pole, no unique direction in space which could result in cosmic anisotropy. The only specified direction should be the one chosen for reference, the Earth's axis.
Communication between the parts of the system may take the form of material transfers or electromagnetic radiation, permeating through space under a sort of gravitational tension, but it may also take the form of the spread of gravitational or electromagnetic disturbances. The movement of such disturbances through space from stochastically different sources would produce 'waves', as they spread out from the source and passed through one another. The rate of spread would be the speed of light.
Observations of background radiation are consistent with the multiple effects of the stochastic regenerative process model. In this sense they repeat endlessly what is calculated to have occurred in the earliest stages of the expansion model. Observations in space which suggest anisotropy are artefacts caused by the limitations of observation. The shape of such anisotropies might be expected to change as the technology and methods of observation improve.
The conclusion of such a model is that we do not need to postulate any other Universes. This one is quite complex enough. In particular, the constant velocity of light still poses problems of understanding by reference to the human experience embodied in classical physics.
However, there remains the problem of interpretation of spectroscopic evidence which is thought to support the expansion model.
consistent with all observations
Universe infinite in time and space
no energy loss or entropy change
|Copyright A. C. Sturt 21 September 2001||continued on Page 5|