PAGE 1 Churinga Publishing v
Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 14 January 2002, minor edit 30 June 2004.


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The Timeless Universe
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I. A Model of Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution

by A. C. Sturt cont.




1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

2. Redshift in the Stochastically Regenerated Universe

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 3 - Light Frequency Compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential





PART I

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

2. Redshift in the Stochastically Regenerated Universe

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential

3. Model of the Expanding Universe

A simple model of the expanding Universe is that it began from the explosion of a very small kernel of energy about 15 billion earth years ago. Before the explosion there was no time or space. These were created with or by the explosion, and expanded as the frontier or shell of the explosion-products itself expanded. The explosion produced a plasma of primary fundamental particles, quarks, leptons and antimatter. Within a very short time the expansion of the explosion products cooled the system, allowing particles to associate strongly or combine to form other particles such as neutrons and protons. Still within a few hundred (Earth) seconds of the explosion, particles combined further to form atomic nuclei.

Considerably later, but still at the very early stages of the life of the Universe, the system cooled enough for these nuclei to give rise to atoms of hydrogen and helium. This meant that electromagnetic radiation could then penetrate further. Far later still, a billion years, clouds of hydrogen and helium associated to form stars, the beginning of structure. Two processes then began to occur. First, stars themselves formed the larger associations we call galaxies. Secondly, within stars gravitational forces began to turn hydrogen and helium into heavier elements by nuclear processes. At the end of its life a star may collapse and explode in a supernova explosion, which itself forms even heavier elements as it disperses the whole into the Universe. These are the heavier elements of which the Earth itself consists.

The process of expansion continues. Current measurements suggest that according to this model it will never end. The structures of the Universe are becoming further and further apart, according to some at an ever increasing rate, and so the ultimate fate of the Universe is a system in which the parts become totally isolated with no stars in their sky. And now there are also other features to be explained such as black holes, like the one at the centre of our galaxy, and a considerable amount of dark matter.

Evidence of the initial explosion is found in residual electromagnetic radiation which accords with theory. The measurements of particle physics confirm the early stages.

The succession of stages is set out in the Table - Stages of Expansion . The Universe is expanding in space and time throughout. The entropic state is described independently of the volume of the expanding universe as 'inherent entropy', since volume begs the question of measurement and state, as argued above.

The clear separation of stages breaks down at Stage IV, because there is no reason why the processes of agglomeration and condensation should not begin in some parts as soon as stars form i.e. as heterogeneous a Universe as we see today. But that is simply a problem of presentation. Judgments about entropy are based on the simple notion that the progression of stages is irreversible, which must be true when all the components are totally isolated, and the temperature of the whole system decreases, so there is an inexorable increase to a maximum.

This is a process with a definite beginning, but no end. Until stars form, the Universe consists of plasmas or gases, which are homogeneous through time, and so give no indication of the passage of time in themselves, because there is no point of reference. However the nature of the plasmas/gases is different in each stage, which indicates transition, and so the passage of time, although we cannot say in which direction without invoking the observations of particle behaviour from physics. This is the position of an observer of what might be thought of as cosmic time, time in the Universe for an external observer of the whole system, if that were possible.

Stars, on the other hand, are not homogeneous through time, nor are the galaxies and clusters of galaxies which they form. They change, which gives a means of observing the passage of time. One might, therefore, observe the movement of one galaxy from a position on another as a point of reference to show the passage and direction of time. If the model is to be believed, the expansion of the Universe would provide a measure of time by following the separation of the galaxies. This would in effect be intergalactic time. If there were a means of observing black holes associated with galaxies, presumably these too would undergo the same process of separation, which could be used in the same way. If everything ultimately were swallowed by one big black hole, this would show the progress of material in the Universe towards it, which would give a rather unfortunate and final indication of the passage and direction of time.

Within a star the composition changes with time. The passage of time can be observed by the extent of formation of heavy atomic nuclei, in effect stellar time. Around a star the passage of time can be observed from the different points of a planet's orbit. Observation of the star from the planet itself gives diurnal time as the planet rotates on its axis. At the lowest level in this hierarchy one can use apparatus to measure atomic transitions, which begins to link the various times together: atomic vibrations timed in earthly seconds related to the planetary orbit i.e. the year.

Three points stand out in the model. First, there is a change in homogeneity through time during the process. It has to be demonstrated how structures which are not homogeneous through time, arise from particles which were and still are homogeneous through time. Secondly, the primary particles seem not to have a part to play, once they have agglomerated to form the secondary particles, the composition of which is thereby fixed for all time. So what is their point? And thirdly, most of the measures of time which are inherent in the model depend on the transfer of information over cosmic distances through electromagnetic waves. The conclusions drawn about distances and times are therefore critically dependent on the properties of electromagnetic waves, particularly the constant velocity of light in a vacuum, which so disturbs the concepts of classical physics, and our common sense interpretation of what we see around us.








stages of expansion















expansion continues still




background radiation

classification by entropy and homogeneity through time









beginning, no end







changes of star composition













from homogeneous to non- homogeneous through time - how?

why primary particles?

how to measure time?
Copyright A. C. Sturt 21 September 2001 continued on Page 4
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