|PAGE 1||Churinga Publishing||v|
|Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 14 January 2002, minor edit 30 June 2004.
|The Timeless Universe||
|I. A Model of Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution
by A. C. Sturt cont.
2. The Rules
The same principle applies to the laws of physics, and of course the laws of other natural sciences, which are usually described as 'invariant' with respect to different positions in space and time. Galileo conceived his Earth-bound relationships and put them to the test by experiment, believing they said something about the whole Earth and the Sun. Newton conceived his theories in his garden, if the stories are to be believed, and promptly extended them to relationships throughout the solar system. Astronomers extend them throughout the whole Universe. There may be extreme conditions under which such relationships, including gravity and electromagnetism take unusual forms compared with those with which man is familiar, but they are not abandoned in favour of something totally different. We try to understand the behaviour of other parts of the Universe in terms of the same phenomena and relationships which we see on Earth.
Homogeneity through time applies to number. Arithmetic is the same everywhere on Earth, the same as it has always been. It will be the same everywhere in the Universe. This is a matter of definition. So if what we know to be a length of 3 metres on earth, say, appears to be a length of 2 metres somewhere else in the universe, it is not because the rules of number have somehow changed. It must be because either the constraints of observation lead to that conclusion, or because metres on Earth are shorter than metres in the other part of the Universe. It may offend our common sense, but there are no other possibilities. The same arguments apply to time. If a given length of time measured on Earth appears to take fewer seconds elsewhere in the Universe, either we have trouble with measuring the time, or seconds are longer in that part of space. We may of course have both together, but it will not be number which is at fault.
There seems to be one parameter which astronomy treats as somewhat flexible in interpretation, the constant velocity of light in a vacuum. The velocity of electromagnetic waves in a vacuum is the same whether the observer and/or the source of the radiation is moving. Or stated differently, the speed of light in vacuo is the same in any direction, the same for all inertial observers and independent of any motion of the body emitting the light. This has been confirmed by innumerable experiments over a long period of time, beginning with the effect of the Earth's rotation on light from the Sun, and extending into all manner of sophisticated experiments in the laboratory. Yet heavenly bodies are thought to be able to approach or recede from the wave front of light which they emit, whence the red shift. Why is deep space thought to be different?
From the redshift cosmologists calculate the velocity with which the galaxies are receding from each other, and by extrapolation from this, the point at which they must all have been very close together, the beginning of the Universe, in terms of Earth years (period of the Earth's orbit in the year 2000). The theory requires that time and space were created at the same time. Are the relationships for the constant velocity of light, as stated above, still homogeneous through time? Some extremely sophisticated reasoning is needed to reconcile the conclusions drawn from the observations with measurements of the velocity of light here on Earth.
Homogeneity through time is an even more fundamental concept than entropy. Entropy is usually applied to well characterised systems, preferably with infinitely slow or reversible changes for quantitative evaluation. It is defined in terms of heat changes and temperatures. It always increases, so that it has been described as time's arrow. It uses the concept of a heat sink outside the system in question into which heat may flow i.e. it deals in subsystems. What is less clear is that it can be properly applied to the whole system itself, the whole Universe. Flows into and out of what, and of course when, without begging the question of the state and process of the Universe? Is it correct to assume that entropy in the whole universe is always increasing? Must it end in cold waste and void?
What does reversible or irreversible mean when all particles are homogeneous through time, and when they can be remade or, perhaps better, re-separated by man in a particle accelerator? Does this mean that the process of the Universe is reversible and adiabatic, in which case the entropy of the whole system does not increase. Are local changes in the system balanced by changes elsewhere, and by what mechanism? Are we living in a Universe which is an isentropic system? Entropy changes are confounded with the postulated increase of volume of the expanding Universe, since entropy is an extensive parameter. It assumes the answer to make the proof. It also assumes the validity of dimensions.
Homogeneity through time needs no condition other than that two or more entities or states should be indistinguishable. It cannot tell you whether one entity preceded another. If this is so, there is no way of telling time, or location in space by comparing them. To do this one needs entities which change with time in an observable way. They may be structures which can be seen to change, such as mountains or rivers or a pendulum. They may be dials on a screen or a watch face, say a caesium clock or a light emitting diode, where regular change is brought about and measured using the whole system's property of resonance. You can tell the time and place from the apparatus needed to do this.
This touches on a further application of the concept of homogeneity through time, its application to systems. The Universe seems by observation to be nothing if not a system, the whole system, the system of everything. Systems have their rules, which are mathematical and homogeneous through time. All the phenomena described above as homogeneous through time are in effect the building blocks out of which everything in the Universe is made. However the system develops, the building blocks will continue to exist as they always have and always will. They will simply be separated and reformed into different structures as time passes, whether new particles, atoms, molecules or physical structures. We are observers of change from within the system which we observe. There is no question of stepping outside the Universe to get a clearer view of what is going on. All our measurements are endogenous to the Great Universal System. Nothing we observe can be exogenous to that system.
It is in this context that theories of the processes by which the Universe came to be what we observe today need to be developed.
homogeneity through time and space
in the laws of physics
in the velocity of light
redshift and velocity problem
more fundamental than entropy
reversibility of cosmic processes?
the Great Universal System
|Copyright A. C. Sturt 21 September 2001||continued on Page 3|