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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page redesigned 16 April 02.


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The Timeless Universe
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Footnote 3 - Light Frequency Compensation Mechanism of Individual Atoms

by A. C. Sturt cont.


PART I

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

2. Redshift in the Stochastically Regenerated Universe

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential











PART I

1. Homogeneity through Time

2. The Rules

3.Model of the Expanding Universe

4.Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution Model

Table - Stages of the Expansion Model

PART II

1. Redshift - Conventional View

2. Redshift in the Stochastically Regenerated Universe

Footnote 1 - Differentiation of Space

Footnote 2 - Observational Frameworks of Time

Footnote 4 - Redshift and Rotation of Celestial Bodies

PART III

The Meaning of Mass

PART IV

The Redshift Exponential

That the speed of light in vacuo is the same in any direction, the same for all inertial observers and independent of any motion of the body emitting the light, can be interpreted as a limiting interaction with an electromagnetic field.

However, this does not explain is why the light retains its frequency when the atom is moving. Doppler effect explanations require the velocity of the atom to be added to or subtracted from the velocity of light, which is not only constant but also has a value which cannot be exceeded.

An alternative explanation is proposed as follows in which frequencies of light emission and absorption are compensated for movement of the individual atom by internal changes which do not require these rules to be broken.

When light arrives at the surface of an atom, it is travelling at its constant velocity, and it has a characteristic frequency, the number of vibrations a second. Both of these characteristics are homogeneous through time i.e. they are the same everywhere and at all times. They always have been, and always will be. This means that time inside the atom is the same as time observed outside e.g. caesium clock time. Since this applies to all atoms, all atoms have the same internal time, which can be detected by the ratio of their characteristic vibrations. An observer inside an atom would always be able to measure time intervals by counting the number of vibrations, and comparing it with the caesium standard. Number is homogeneous through time.

If we assume the atom is at rest, a condition which will have to be defined later, we can envisage the atom as a sphere with the nucleus at the centre, the centre of gravity. We now propose that the atom has an analogous centre for its electromagnetic properties, in this case its centre of absorption. We further suggest that the atom may be considered to have an electromagnetic shell. In a spherical atom, which is an atom at rest, the centre is the same distance from every part of the shell. This spherical shell is defined differently from the shells in which electrons orbit (according to the Bohr model).

Once inside the atom the velocity of light drops to a constant velocity v0, probably to about a third of its velocity in vacuo. This relates to the rate of transfer of an electron from 'orbit' to 'orbit'. Since the atom is spherical, the distance of the electromagnetic centre from the electromagnetic shell is the same from whichever direction the light approaches. The time taken to reach the centre is therefore the same, and so the frequency with which light waves arrive at the centre is independent of direction. They arrive more slowly but simultaneously.

If the atom is moving with velocity v, it is proposed that the electromagnetic shell is distorted in the direction of motion. If this is the x-axis, the distance between the electromagnetic centre and the shell decreases in the direction from which the light is coming by a factor of (v0v)/v0 or 1-v/v0. However, in the direction in which the atom is moving, the distance between the electromagnetic centre and the electromagnetic shell increases by a factor of 1+v/v0. On the other two axes there is no change.

If the radius of the undistorted sphere wasd, then the electromagnetic shell is the surface of rotation of a curve which has the values:

  • zero at a distance of -(1-v0/v) along the x-axis, rising to
  • d when x=0, and falling to
  • zero at a distance of (1+v/v0) along the x-axis.

Every point in between will have a value of y formed by vector addition which takes account of the direction of light with respect to the velocity and direction of movement of the atom i.e. the x-axis. The result is an ovoid shape, as if the electromagnetic sphere was left behind by the forward movement of the atom.

The result is that light which has a velocity v0 inside the atom travels different distances from the electromagnetic shell to the electromagnetic centre, depending on its angle of incidence, such that its frequency at the centre is maintained whatever the direction of the atom's movement.

Similarly when light is emitted from the electromagnetic centre, the centre of emission, it travels different distances to the electromagnetic shell depending on the value and direction of the velocity of the atom, such that waves arrive at the surface of the shell simultaneously, thus preserving its frequency. When it is emitted from the shell, it proceeds to travel at the speed of light at the frequency which is determined by the internal mechanism of the atom, and at the velocity which is determined by its interaction with the electromagnetic field of space.

In this way the addition of velocities takes place exactly as in Newtonian physics, except that it happens inside an atom instead of between outside bodies. This addition is possible because the velocity of light inside the atom is much less than the limiting value observed in vacuo, and so it is possible to add to and subtract from it. The model explains the frequency effects while conforming to the requirements that the velocity of light is independent of the motion of source or observer and has a constant, limiting value in vacuo. The atom itself is the frame of reference.

The distortion of the sphere by the atom's motion is the result of its interaction with the Universal electromagnetic field. It depends on velocity rather than acceleration. It means that the atom has a fixed point of reference with respect to which it can move, whence it can adopt a spherical form at rest. It detects movement at a constant velocity with respect to the field. In effect it knows when it is moving, because it knows where it is.

The electromagnetic field provides the means of co-ordination between the light when it is in vacuo and when it is inside the atom. The velocity of light in vacuo is determined by its interaction with the electromagnetic field. Light inside the atom is controlled by the displacement of the electromagnetic centre, which is also an interaction with the same field.

There seems to be no way of detecting such an internal atomic effect by observation. Nor by definition is it possible to detect the velocity of bodies through space by a redshift caused by a Doppler effect. The compensation mechanism eliminates it before it reaches the light of day.

The corollary is that redshift is caused by something else. In the stochastic regeneration model the cause is frequency attenuation by travel through the electromagnetic field which permeates all space.

A. C. Sturt

12 November 2001


speed of light

limiting interaction with electromagnetic field


velocity of atom

internal frequency compensation mechanism















atomic electromagnetic shell?






velocity inside atom

speed of transfer of electrons between shells?






electromagnetic centre?




shape of electromagnetic shell






ovoid





constant frequency














addition of vectors








shell distorted by interaction with field
Copyright A. C. Sturt November 2001 continued on Page 7
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