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Churinga Publishing Personal Website of Alan Charles Sturt v
Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page updated and corrected
7 April 2015.

Science catalogue from 22 September 2001 to 7 April 2015
history, book, papers

I. Full History of Development of Churinga Publishing 2001-2013

The books and papers by A.C.Sturt under the heading of Churinga Publishing describe the evolution over a period of eleven years of systems analysis applied to problems in economics, archaeology and science, restructuring in the form of processes the measurements and observations which have been reported in the literature. This produced valuable insights which were otherwise lost in detail, and challenged preconceptions which may have hindered solutions in the past. It was by its very nature multidisciplinary, and started at the beginning of processes, or at least recognised the assumptions which previous analyses made.

The paper is in two halves. The first part describes the evolution of the thinking behind the analyses, as each exposed problems which led to the next. By this process models were increasingly refined. What prompted the series was my book The Scale and Scope of Economics which identified the static model which is the basis of the current neoclassical economic theory and the problems which this causes, quite the antithesis of systems thinking. The second book A Degree of Freedom described the general basis of systems analysis in non-mathematical terms. The third book Democratic Systems applied this to democratic systems and democracy itself. The spread of the web encouraged me to publish an archaeological paper on the Neolithic Transition, and offered a way to enter scientific debate.

I began by developing a systems alternative to the cosmological Big Bang theory. This led straight into a modification of Newton’s Second Law, questioned relativity and its interpretation of time, proposed a model of light which reconciled particle and wave duality, suggested a new structure of the atom and the nucleus, and a possible mechanism for gravitational attraction. The key to all this was to reintroduce the concept of the medium of space, this time with electromagnetic properties, which shed a new light on the use of ‘fields’ in physics. Finally, the same methodology was applied to Darwinian natural selection and evolution, both Universal and human.

The second part of the paper is in the form of an Appendix with summaries of each of the individual books and papers and links to facilitate reference.

© A.C.Sturt 10 March 2010

links added 29 July 2010, more text and links in document added 28 August 2010. Updated 9 December 2011.
Updated 14 August 2013 with updated Summary paper.

FULL TEXT (free)

II. Book

A Degree of Freedom Degree of Freedom thumbnail

Book in hardback
ISBN 0-9526736-1-4
©1993 A. C. Sturt
first edition
133 pages
including index
19 figures and 1 table.

Jacket price GBP 15.99

An exposition of systems from first principles: interactions, feedback, optimisation, processes of change. Even some philosophy, in the context of time. An innovative approach.

Systems thinking brings fresh insight to those interested in how processes work, not only in the natural world, but also in their everyday lives. The methodology takes account of the effect of time, which leads to problem-solving by design rather than by chance. It is invaluable when establishing new systems and in solving problems which arise in all systems. The basic principles do not depend on equations; all that is needed is a clear head. The book contains numerous examples of systems which show how they work including a game of football, a company, 'scientific management', organisations and strategy, sailing, evolution and the Newtonian solar system.

Available from bookshops or direct from Churinga Publishing, Po Box 1133, Guildford, GU1 9NA, UK.

order form for A Degree of Freedom

Also available on Kindle as ISBN 978-0-9526736-4-4 from 8 August 2011

full jacket with blurb
(zoom in for for detail)

III. Papers free on line in reverse order of publication.
Earlier papers have been submitted to journals for publication.

(see also Original texts and List of Submissions)


DEVELOPMENT OF CHURINGA PUBLISHING - NEW MODELS IN PHYSICS AND BIOLOGY 2001-2012

10 YEAR SUMMARY Of PAPERS


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2012

A Decade of Analysis by A.C. Sturt 2001-2013 extended with evolution and cell particle kinetics papers.

New 21 December 2012 with minor editing and clarifications
1 March 2013

updates 14 August 2013

If the essentials of these analyses are valid, and they certainly form a coherent system in their own right, they suggest changes to the paradigms of physics which have held sway since the early twentieth century. The fundamental outcome is that much of the mystery can be taken out of modern physics by acknowledging the existence of the medium of space. Newton believed it existed, and so did Faraday. It was discarded by Einstein because he did not need it. In its present reinstatement by me, it has the property of susceptibility to electromagnetic induction. From this everything else below flows: new paradigms not only in physics but also in astronomy and cosmology, in fact all parts of the system which is the Universe.

My development of alternative models required an examination of the mathematical basis of equations used in physics, particularly the limitations of the hyperbolic functions used in relativity. Surprising conclusions about the nature of time and space emerged.

Since the systems methodology is universal in application, I also used it on particular biological systems. New insights and paradigms have been gained by consideration of biological systems at the level of particle kinetics. The results showed that evolution is not so much a theory as a law, like the gravitational attraction between masses and the flow of rivers downhill. As final proof of its versatility, I applied it to an archaeological process, probably the most important change in the history of mankind. This is all part of our Universe of ceaseless change.

FULL TEXT (free)

COSMOLOGY - CULMINATION IN A NEW MODEL

A new model and its implications


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2015

Winds of Change in the Cosmos

New 4 March 2015

This note summarises my recent analyses of the Solar System, and brings to the argument the conclusions of recent papers in the literature which suggest that the current model of the cosmos may be far too simplistic. The Solar System appears to have the characteristics of a giant capacitor, a proton shell surrounded by an electron shell well beyond anything telescopes observe, and possibly stretching into interstellar space as far as a similar electron shell from the neighbouring star. This may form an electromagnetic link between stars in a galaxy. Measurements by ESA's Planck satellite has detected an interaction between interstellar dust in the Milky Way to form a galactic magnetic field. New observations by the VLT in Chile have revealed alignments of the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe, more than a billion light years long. Others suggest that up to half the stars in the Universe are not in galaxies at all. And so on. If substantiated, all these observation, and undoubtedly others to come, suggest the existence of much larger structures in the Universe than a single event could account for. None of this is compatible with the Universal mathematical development from a single point, even with the imposition of ripples in an alleged space-time. My own analysis of redshift has suggested that stars are much nearer to Earth than currently assumed. All in all the conclusions seem to be that the Universe is infinite in time and space, and not expanding as a 'whole' i.e. no need for dark energy. In addition, re-evaluation of distances may mean that there is not much dark matter either, or at least not as much as currently estimated!

FULL TEXT (free)


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2014

Stellar Electron and Proton Shells -An Addendum to
A New Cosmological Model?

New 5 March 2014

The preceding analysis may lead to further speculative elaboration. Stars are not homogeneous entities; conditions in the interior are different from those on the surface, where their ‘atmospheres’ meet the void of space and where there are known to be intense magnetic fields. It may be that this heterogeneity provides the loci for nuclear destruction. There may also be heterogeneity within the body of the star through turbulence and poor ‘mixing’. The result is that matter is continually erupting from the star into the surrounding space, whether as bulk material or as individual particles. The force which ejects particles would be the greatest force known to physics, the strong nuclear force. The ejected particles would travel to very great ‘heights’ above the surfaces of the stars, much further than the Oort cloud at 40,000 AU. The result would be shells of charged particles, an electron shell on the outside because electrons have the lowest mass, with a proton shell inside it. Such shells would surround all stars, and possibly form interactions between them.

FULL TEXT (free)


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2013

A New Cosmological Model?

New 28 November 2013

The expansion model of the Universe comprises progress from the notional original explosion through a succession of stages to an eventual cold, dark state when the lights have gone out because all the hydrogen available for fusion has been converted to metallic elements i.e. nuclear waste, by the pressures and temperatures in stars. This waste is supposed to take the form of bodies composed of rock flying apart for ever, because the process has no end.

However, the disintegration of heavy nuclei through collision demonstrates that this need not be the case. The products of disintegration will be hydrogen or small nuclear particles which can fall back into the star under the force of gravity, and then be built upon by fusion processes again. In fact the Universe may be considered to be in a state of dynamic equilibrium without end, and by implication, without beginning. Such a dynamic equilibrium is timeless, and so it can give no indication of a lifetime of 13.7 billion years since the origin of the Universe, nor that indeed there was one, let alone a Big Bang. Changes in the equilibrium of individual stars can then be caused only by exchange of mass between them. Until a star receives or loses mass, it remains an island.

FULL TEXT (free)

PROCESSES OF GROWTH, STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION BY NATURAL SELECTION

The relationship between cells and orientation, shape and proportions


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2013

Stem cells at the Royal Society Exhibition 2013

New 8 July 2013

The process of differentiation of cells begins in the embryo. Cells must learn one end of a structure from the other, and how to tell left from right of the final mammal, before it is even formed, with the result that our hearts are on the left hand side of the body (facing forward!). This degree of freedom must be settled at the very beginning because it is these configurations which are transmitted throughout the growth process to the adult mammal. Given this, a mechanism can be formulated as set out in the preceding paper, by which the ends of a structure of cells are determined by the anisotropy of the cell walls i.e. different walls of different sizes with different properties being assembled back to back. They will always finish up with different ends, which become apparent when the baby separates from its mother. But the outcome must be determined at the stem cell stage, because there is no mechanism for a change of degree of freedom later in the development of the the embryo. This paper speculates that, however far fetched, they must know in some way which direction is east, because this is the only unique and persistent direction common to all of us on Earth. There may be a parallel in cosmology!

FULL TEXT (free)


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2013

Cell Walls - the Limits to Growth

New 26 May 2013

Species evolve and become extinct through the action of natural selection by the physical environment. Each species has its own specific DNA to enable it to reproduce. The link between DNA, as a chemical, and the physical features on which the environment acts is not known. Individuals differ in shapes and proportions even within the same species. This paper suggests that the differences originate in the interaction of the individual's DNA with the walls of the cell as the only structural feature. This may originate from the membrane of the egg at conception, because cells seem to have memory of the whole individual. The network of cells is what may control and limit growth. The argument uses the methodology of particle kinetics. Tests and measurements are suggested which include materials testing. This is a new paradigm.

FULL TEXT (free)

COSMOLOGY - THE CULMINATION

Universal solutions


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2012

The Source of Energy in the Cosmos

New 25 November 2012

We know that energy can neither be created nor destroyed, and that mechanical energy has a heat equivalent. But we do not know what energy is. This paper proposes a general process which underlies energy in all its different applications using the new model of the Universe in my previous paper, which is based on the e-particle. The model is developed to show that all energy is in fact the work done by these forces of attraction between e-particles which are continually trying to bring them closer together. Such aggregation produces all matter, from protons, atoms and molecules to planets and galaxies. In this model the cosmos is infinite and in a steady-state. What maintains the steady-state is that e-particles in the largest agglomerates among the stars can also repel each other so violently that they result in explosions, which reduce agglomerates back to e-particles and scatter them across space. This provides a coherent, cosmic model of stochastic regeneration and redistribution. Reference is made to analytical papers that I wrote over a period of ten years, which are the basis of the new model. Measurements are proposed to substantiate the model.

FULL TEXT (free)


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2012

The Origins of Particles,
Forces and Electromagnetic Radiation - A New Analysis (where did all the positrons go?)

New 14 May 2012 with
minor clarifications
1 September 2012

The ultimate aim of particle physics is to simplify our understanding of the principles which underlie the processes of the Universe. This paper develops a model which uses the fundamental building block of a single particle to account for all matter in the Universe, to provide the source of all physical forces including gravity and to generate electromagnetic radiation. This particle is the quantum of matter. It comprises the ‘stuff’ of electrons and positrons without their electric charge. I have given it the name epsilon-particle or ‘e-particle’ to distinguish it from these two particles and the gamut of other particles, because electric charge is not used in the analysis. Phenomena attributed to the separation of charges are caused by the spinning of the e-particle on its axis. If it seems to us to rotate in one direction, we call it an electron. If it seems to rotate in the other direction, it is a positron. All forces and electromagnetic radiation result from the interaction of e-particles with the medium of space which is susceptible to electromagnetic induction. FULL TEXT (free)

Redshift solutions

Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2011

Paradox, what paradox?

New 7 December 2011


Resolution of Olbers' Paradox points to a Universe which must be infinite. The same methodology applied to the Wilkinson map of cosmic microwave background radiation also supports this conclusion. Thus, while the part of the Universe which we observe is much smaller than we thought, the Universe itself is much bigger, in fact infinite in time and space.
FULL TEXT (free)


Monograph
© A.C.Sturt 2011

The Decrease of the Electromagnetic Frequency of Radiation from Stars

New 24 August 2011


There are two possible origins of the redshift of light from stars: either something causes it in the location of the star, or it happens during the travel of light from star to Earth. This analysis shows that it cannot occur at the star itself, because the frequencies of light generated by the star’s activity must be the same as on Earth. The energy levels of atoms which give rise to these frequencies must also determine their chemistry, which is Universal. Anything else would make nonsense of the whole basis of science. The most likely solution is that it occurs during transit through space. A mechanism is proposed by which a decrease of electromagnetic frequency occurs continuously as a particle of light travels from star to Earth. The relation between energy and electromagnetic frequency according to Planck suggests that such a decrease must occur exponentially with distance. Measurements are suggested by which this can be substantiated using standard observations on Earth which may already have been made. It is probably a question of re-interpretation.
FULL TEXT (free)


Time and Space - The Sequel

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2010

Time and Space - The Sequel
New 5 October 2010


To obtain increasing precision, time and distance are being defined in terms of atomic transitions or the electromagnetic radiation which they generate. This raises questions about fundamental uncertainties of physics: the nature of light and the existence of a medium of space. The paper considers the consequences of a particulate theory of light, including rotating electromagnetic dipoles, from the particle’s origin in atomic bonds to its transmission through space. It proposes that distance-intervals are surveyors’ tools devised by man for his purposes, whereas time-intervals measure the transmission of electromagnetic radiation from system to system, which must happen in all natural processes. In this case it is vital to know whether the attenuation of the frequency of electromagnetic radiation, that is astronomical redshift, is caused by the velocity of the emitter, which the analysis shows is unlikely, or by interaction with the medium of space i.e. the difference between clock time sent and received. The discovery of new phenomena, especially in space, could be missed.
FULL TEXT (free)

DOPPLER AND THE NEW MODEL OF PHYSICS - A FINAL RECONCILIATION
Doppler and the proposed new model of physics

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2010

Reflection, Emission and Doppler Effects of Light Particles
New 10 March 2010


The Doppler shift originated with the motion of bodies through gases, but it is regularly applied to electromagnetic radiation on the assumption that light is composed of waves. However, light is particulate, which invalidates that mechanism. This paper shows that particles of light in the form of rotating electromagnetic dipoles are compatible with Doppler for reflected light, but not for emitted light. Redshift of stars/planets cannot be caused by Doppler, and does not indicate velocities through space. However, light of high frequency is generated when bodies accelerate through the medium of space from velocities which are comparable to the speed of light, and this may explain why some galaxies appear to us to be blue-shifted.
FULL TEXT (free)

END OF DOPPLER
SOMETHING BIOLOGICAL
A few words on evolution

Biology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2010

Human Evolution as a Continuous Process
New 25 January 2010


A new paradigm of a continuous process is proposed for human evolution, so that the species we see may be described as semi-homogeneous through time. The brain co-evolved with morphology both in size and scope through the accumulation of favourable mutations, which occurred at random in individuals and diffused through the species by procreation. The causes of mutation of the species, radiation and poor cloning of DNA, were proportional to the number of individuals which it contained. The resulting exponential relationship enabled him to outpace all other animals in numbers, technological innovation, communication, and social organisation, which is a learning system with positive feedback. After the initial favourable mutation had occurred, the rest of the two million years was spent building this advantage. Climate was decisive in differentiating populations across the Earth. Populations cut off in different regions such as the Neanderthals may have suffered by being trapped in an icy climate which limited interaction between groups. The fossil record may be found to show many variants of hominids. The indication of man’s evolution is the numbers of contemporaneous individuals, and the sophistication of their cultural relics. New mutations are continually making their way through the species. The continuous model may have implications for evolution in general.
FULL TEXT (free)


Biology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2009

The Co-evolution of Species
New 17 September 2009
Enlarged with section on genes
16 October 2009


Systems dynamics analysis of everyday observations shows that Darwin's "natural selection" is a law of nature comparable to the laws of thermodynamics, no longer just a theory. The evolution of species depends on the individuals of which they are composed. Nature of necessity produces a surplus of offspring. All living entities are differentiated even within species, and natural selection culls the surplus, those individuals whose characteristics make them least able to coexist in the environment of the time. When the environment changes, the characteristics best suited for co-existence change, and so the composition of the species also changes. If this persists, the character of the species changes permanently, which is evolution by natural selection. This mechanism reconciles the dynamics of change of the parts of the system, the individuals, with the dynamics of change in the whole system, which is the species.

Changes of environment affect a wide range of species, which are by definition in a state of co-existence. They all begin to evolve together into a new state in which they can co-exist. This is co-evolution, the process that gives rise quite separately to both new species of prey and to the new predator that will live off them. Agriculture now occupies such a large area of the globe that the network of interactions which sustained co-existence may fail. Instead of co-evolution, exogenous change may bring co-extinction.

FULL TEXT (free)

END OF SOMETHING BIOLOGICAL
VALE ATQUE AVE!
The Last Word - no really!

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2008

The Origins of Particles, Forces and Electromagnetic Radiation Revised
New 14 August 2008


A model has been developed which in principle uses the fundamental building block of a single particle with spin and electromagnetic properties to account for all matter in the Universe, and to provide the source of all physical forces and the generation of electromagnetic radiation. The particle is the quantum of matter and comprises the ‘stuff’ of electrons and positrons without electric charge. Newton’s parameter of mass is decomposed into the inertial and the gravitational. A proposed composition of the proton is the source of gravitational attraction.
FULL TEXT (free)


Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2008

The Nature of Time and the Systems of the Universe
New 17 June 2008


The direction of time and the length of time-intervals are shown to be determined by the velocity of light in vacuo. Since this is a Universal constant, there is no possibility that they can change whatever the circumstances. The methodology used is input/output analysis of systems. The argument is developed in an astronomical framework, but the conclusions apply to all the physical, chemical and biological processes of the Universe, the ultimate system of which we are part.
FULL TEXT (free)


Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2008

The Origins of Particles, Forces and Electromagnetic Radiation
New 12 May 2008


A model has been developed which in principle uses the fundamental building block of a single particle to account for all matter in the Universe, and to provide the source of all physical forces and the generation of electromagnetic radiation.
paper revised and extended
-see above

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2008

Postscript on Time and Space and the Speed of Light
New 13 March 2008


This postscript completes my series of papers. It shows that the constant velocity of light in vacuo is what decouples time from distance, causes events to be sequential and allows processes to occur independently in different locations in the Universe. This constant velocity is determined by the medium of space, as is the velocity of the force of gravitational attraction between masses and the forces of electrostatic and magnetic attraction and repulsion. Anything else would cause chaos, quite literally! The corollary, uncomfortable as it may be for many, is a steady-state Universe. This is compatible with the cycle proposed in the first of this series of papers, "The Timeless Universe".
FULL TEXT (free)


Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2008

Recycling of Atomic Nuclei
on the Scale of the Universe
- A Proposed Mechanism
New 16 January 2008


A dynamic equilibrium is proposed between the formation of metallic nuclei in stars and their destruction into fundamental particles under the same extreme conditions of temperature and pressure. Metallic nuclei are reduced to fundamental particles by collision with each other at high velocities, and the resulting particles are ejected in explosions as protons, electrons and neutrons which reform into hydrogen atoms and hence hydrogen gas to begin the cycle of agglomeration and star formation all over again. This determines the cosmic abundance of elements in the infinite Universe. The total composition remains the same, but the Universe as a whole is regenerated part by part, which completes the cycle proposed in the very first of this series of papers, "The Timeless Universe".
FULL TEXT (free)


Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2007

And about time too!
New 23 December 2007

Very minor additions and corrections 3 January 2008


Newtonian dimensions are figurative descriptions of classes of variables. Treating them as things, even conceptually, causes confusion not only for writers, artists and philosophers, but also for "hard-nosed" physicists and mathematicians. Errors of definition may multiply as arguments proceed and lead men into absurdities, whether in algebraic functions and differential calculus or in unwarranted application of macroscopic analysis to the behaviour of fundamental particles.
FULL TEXT (free)

FINIS! VALE ATQUE AVE!
BLOCK OF LATE ADDITIONS
The New Model of Physics - late additions

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2007

The Interaction of Mechanical Force and Electric Charge in Physical Systems
New 15 October 2007


There is a conceptual problem in relating Newtonian mechanics to the properties of subatomic particles which has become apparent in questions raised about the last few papers. This paper describes the two levels and explains how they must relate through electric and magnetic forces. The explanation requires the electron shell to be smoothly deformable with no quantum leaps.
FULL TEXT (free)


Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2007

The Anatomy of Explosion
New 9 July 2007













Further thoughts on the electron shells of atoms.
New 31 July 2007


The dynamics of explosions are analysed in terms of the forces which cause acceleration of the particles of the exploding material rather than the usual bulk properties of pressure, temperature, concentration etc. The particles are fundamentally atoms or nuclei. The initial step of chemical explosions is the formation of mutually repulsive like negative charges, and for nuclear explosions, like positive charges. Nuclear fusion is initiated by very high temperatures and pressures. However, after the initiation step all three types of explosion are propagated by the mutual repulsion of negative charges of electrons which orbit atoms. The methodology is then applied to the initial explosion which is postulated by the theory of the expanding Universe. This raises doubts about fundamental particles present at initiation of the initial cosmic explosion, and the interpretation of cosmic redshift and cosmic microwave background radiation.

The comment was made that the orbits of electrons in atoms do not vibrate. In fact they must distort on impact in order to provide the force of restitution, like any two billiard balls. So far as weight is concerned, if there is no distortion, there is no resistance to the force of gravitational attraction by Earth, and there can be no possibility of attaining equilibrium at rest, which is clearly at odds with observation. The paper sets out the arguments and some direct measurements to measure the dimensions of atoms under these conditions.

FULL TEXT (free)







FULL TEXT (free)


Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2007

Synchrotron Radiation and Bremsstrahlung
New 4 July 2007

Classical theory says that electromagnetic radiation is produced by the acceleration and deceleration of charged particles. An alternative is proposed here in which electromagnetic radiation is produced only by positive acceleration. Comparison of synchrotron radiation and bremsstrahlung in a thought experiment suggests that radiation apparently produced by deceleration is caused by adventitious accelerations of some particles in a stream undergoing collisions during deceleration of the bulk.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2007

The Nature of Dark Matter - A Suggested Composition and Mechanism
New 5 April 2007

It is proposed that dark matter may be neutrons produced in stars and ejected in clouds into the space around them i.e. in the galaxies. Neutrons and associated particles emit no radiation in the conditions under which they are ejected from stars, but they retain their property of gravitational attraction. The previous paper suggests that the neutron is an extranuclear particle composed of an electron in close orbit around a proton. In the laboratory neutrons decompose into protons and electrons with a half life of about 10 minutes, but in the low temperature and pressure of space it is suggested here that they can last indefinitely or at least until they strike an atomic nucleus, and so they form persistent clouds. If this is so, neutron clouds would form an integral part of the processes of regeneration and redistribution in a steady-state Universe.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2006

Neutrons in the Structure of Atomic Nuclei
New 29 November 2006

The observed characteristics of neutrons suggest an underlying phenomenon to be exposed. This paper proposes that neutrons are in fact an extranuclear phenomenon. What are interpreted as neutrons in the nucleus are intranuclear electrons in close orbit around structures of protons at velocities comparable to the speed of light. A neutron which has been expelled from the nucleus is a proton which has taken an intranuclear electron with it. The orbit of this electron decays with a half-life to the usual slower orbit of electrons in hydrogen atoms. The result of this analysis is a model of the atom completely different from Bohr's. See Figure 6.
FULL TEXT (free)
BLOCK OF LATE ADDITIONS (ABOVE)
START OF FIFTH AND FINAL BLOCK
The New Model of Physics and related topics

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2005

Comprehensive Summary of a New Model of Physics
New 28 November 2005

A new, deterministic and essentially Newtonian model of physics has been developed based on the papers below. The essential feature of the model is the hypothesis of a medium of space with electromagnetic properties. The result is a simple Universal system composed only of particles of mass, the medium of space and electromagnetic radiation. Time does not dilate, and energy and mass are not interchangeable.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2005

Wave/particle Duality and
Standing Electromagnetic Waves
New 2 October 2005

A methodology based on standing waves is proposed to resolve the question of whether electromagnetic radiation consists of waves or particles. Crossed beams of light are used to produce conditions calculated to produce the pattern of standing waves. If none is produced over a wide range of conditions, the probability increases that light is not waves but fundamentally particulate.
FULL TEXT (free)

Microbiology Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2005

The System Dynamics of Bacterial Evolution and the Human Immune System
New 30 August 2005

The physicist Szilard discovered that a single bacterium, nurtured under laboratory conditions could apparently "evolve". Recently it has been discovered that the human immune system could undergo changes "to meet a threat in a day or two". It is also known that bacteria may clone themselves in a matter of hours. Treating these three observations as components of a system gives insights into the dynamic interaction of bacteria and antibodies.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics and Mathematics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2005

Physics and Mathematics
New 1 August 2005

See also
Homogeneity through Time
in FOURTH BLOCK


The mathematics of physics is fundamentally different from the algebra of mathematics, even though both use equations. Physics requires measurement to substantiate its models, whereas mathematics is a process of internal reasoning. The difference began with Newton's laws of motion and gravity, and all subsequent physics derives from his methodology. The corollary is that physics cannot advance through ever more sophisticated mathematical reasoning, but only by new measurements, not necessarily on Earth.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2005

Doppler and related effects
New 28 July 2005

The theory of Doppler shifts has been imported straight from the transmission of sound through gases into frequency changes of electromagnetic radiation. However, it is shown that the theory is incompatible with "particle" theories of light. There are implications for the theory of the expanding Universe for which a Doppler shift towards the red of light from stars is considered to be evidence.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2005

The Dilation of Time?
New 8 June 2005

The relativistic phenomenon of time dilation is based on misinterpretation. Light depends on transitions of electronic orbits, not mass velocities, and it is incompatible both with with the particle theory of light and with clocks based on radioactive events. The slowing of atomic clocks in space and redshift of light from stars may both be electromagnetic phenomena.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2005

Energy and the Observed Frequencies of Electromagnetic Radiation
New 8 May 2005

New models of atomic and nuclear structure suggest that forms of electromagnetic radiation should occur which have much higher frequencies than those observed by current methods of detection, which are ultimately electronic. Such unseen radiation is here termed 'omega' radiation. It may need reconciliation with the Planck equation, and affect calculations of energy balances.
FULL TEXT (free)
END OF FIFTH AND FINAL BLOCK
START OF FOURTH BLOCK
The Nature of Things

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2004

Electric Charge in a Microgranular Medium of Space: Ultimate Components of the Universe?
(21 December 2004)

Analysis of a microgranular medium of space is extended to electric and magnetic fields, and to electromagnetic radiation. The entire Universe can then be composed of just two phenomena and their interactions: electric charge and the medium of space. Tests are proposed by measurements both in the laboratory and in deep space.
FULL TEXT (free)

Mathematics, Physics
and Economics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2004

Homogeneity through
Time (1 December 2004)

See also
Physics and Mathematics
in FIFTH BLOCK


The concepts of homogeneity through time and space explained. Follow-up paper to questions at Royal Society Scientific Discussion Meeting : the nature of mathematical proof, Monday 18 and Tuesday 19 October 2004. See also later paper on Physics and Mathematics 1 August 2005
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics and Mathematics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2004

Light and Gravity Inside and Outside the Solar System: Potential Consequences of 'Particle' Deflection Hypotheses
(20 November 2004)

including:

Appendix 1

Appendix 2

Addendum


If light and gravity are 'particulate' phenomena as suggested in previous papers, it is possible to speculate that their inverse square laws are essentially 'local' relationships beyond which other laws hold good. Equations for such relationships are proposed. In the case of light, diffraction itself may provide prima facie evidence. For gravity, there is some evidence from astronomical measurements and the movement of spacecraft. Although this is extremely speculative, tests are proposed which may confirm whether such 'localisation' occurs.

Potential Non-homogeneity through space of the Frequencies of Electromagnetic Emissions.
Radioactive Decay.

Further Tests for Microgranular Medium of Space.

FULL TEXT (free)

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

Gravity, Inertia, Electric Charge, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Radiation -
A Possible Approach to a Combined Model
(24 November 2003)

A velocity is assigned to gravitational change by a new methodology. The resulting analysis suggests that acceleration of mass generates electromagnetic radiation by distorting the medium which fills space. This speculative hypothesis provides a means of linking all natural phenomena. The nature of mass is explored. Tests are proposed.
FULL TEXT (free)

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

An Electrodynamic Model of Atomic Structure
(3 Oct 2003)

Addendum - Fission of nuclei


A new model of the atom based on electric, magnetic and gravitational forces accommodates hydrogen, helium and up to neon in a single shell of electrons, and the rest of the Periodic Table by adding more loosely bound shells. Arbitrary quantum numbers of the Bohr model are not needed.
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Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

On the Nature of Things - A Time and Space Odyssey
(28 May 2003)

A new, simplified model of the nature of the physical world composed only of particles, energy from their vibration and light as the electromagnetic transmitter from structure to structure through the medium of space. Some reclassification of classical definitions.
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START OF THIRD BLOCK
New Model of Physics - Foundations

Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

Mass in the Universal Inertial Field - A Revised Version
(18 Sep 2003)

Mass appears to increase with velocity because resistance to acceleration increases hyperbolically as a result of an inertial field, which permeates the whole of space. An Inertial Resistance Factor R is derived. Alternative explanation to Relativity.
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Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

Radioactive Clocks - A Basis for the Absolute Measurement of Time
(30 July 2003)

A methodology for measuring time solely by the use of radioactivity is derived, without the use of SI units of time-interval. This avoids the use of electromagnetic radiation or other phenomena which may vary with time and space. The resultant time-intervals are therefore Absolute.
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Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

The Nature of Light - A Unified Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles
(9 May 2003)

The theory explains both wave and particle phenomena of light. The basis is electromagnetic induction by particle bonds to form circular currents in the medium of space. This results in progressive, electromagnetic, rotating dipoles, and explains the phenomenon of diffraction.
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Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

The Definitions of Physics
(25 March 2003)

Appendix - The Curvature of Space


The definitions of physics are pulled together into a coherent whole, on the assumption that the tests in the Origin of Quanta confirm the validity of the new model. All phenomena are shown to depend on the existence of the medium of space.
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Physics
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2003

The Origin of Quanta - A Proposed New Decomposition of the Phenomena of the Physical World
(12 March 2003)

Redshift - A Suggested Experiment (4 December 2001)


A new, simpler model is proposed to resolve the contradictions in the wave/particle and particle/energy hypotheses. Its components are particles. Energy is the vibration of bonds between particles, which generate quanta in the medium of space. Radiation is the transmission of energy through the medium of space.

The proposal is to reflect a laser beam from the Moon, as is currently done for distance, but to determine whether a decrease of frequency occurs during transit.

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START OF SECOND BLOCK
Light and Mass

Physics, Astronomy,
Cosmology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2002

I. Universal Units
(25 Jan 2002)

The development of Universal Units of observed time, distance and mass. Implications for the expansion model of the Universe and the Inertial Field.
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Physics, Astronomy,
Cosmology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2002

II. Atomic Clocks on
the Move
(31 Jan 2002)

Astronomical, relativistic and electromagnetic field views of wavelength shift compared.
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Physics, Astronomy,
Cosmology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2002

III. The Doppler Effect - Sound and Light
(18 Feb 2002)

The most likely cause of wavelength shift for light from stars in the visible part of the spectrum is in space travelled, not the motion of sources. A medium of ions, atoms and molecules is suggested as the prime cause, supplemented by local fields. See also later paper Doppler and Related Effects 28 July 2005.
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The Timeless Universe

Physics, Astronomy,
Cosmology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2001

I. A Model of Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution
(22 Sep 2001)

A proposed new model of the Universe, timeless without beginning or end, infinite in space and time, in equilibrium as a whole, but stochastically regenerated part by part through collision, fusion, fission and explosion.
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Physics, Astronomy,
Cosmology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2001

II. The Redshift Reinter-
-preted (27 Sep 2001)
Footnotes 1, 2
23 Oct 01
Footnotes 3, 4
12 Nov 01

Redshift is proportional to the distance of a source, not its velocity. The frequency of radiation is reduced by a Universal electromagnetic field, which provides feedback. Space is differentiated, and time may appear to be. A mechanism for frequency compensation inside atoms is proposed.
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Physics, Astronomy,
Cosmology
Monograph
© A. C. Sturt 2001

III. The Meaning of Mass
(27 Sep 2001)

Mass is an interaction of matter with a Universal gravitational field with an upper velocity limit. The form of the interaction is proposed. The Universal gravitational and electromagnetic fields for mass and light may be different forms of interaction with the same field.
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Physics, Astronomy,
Cosmology
Monograph
©2001 A. C. Sturt

IV. The Redshift Exponential
(7 Jan 2002)

The redshift argument is developed further. Wavelength increases exponentially as light travels through space, until it is totally dissipated through loss of energy to the Universal electromagnetic field.
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END OF FIRST BLOCK
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