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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 27 November 2004

 



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The Nature of Light

 

A Unified Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

 

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by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

1. Introduction

2. Current Views on the Nature of Light

3. A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

4. A Deflection Mechanism

5. The Bending of Light around Corners

6. Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

7. Angles of Deflection

8. Diffraction Gratings

9. The Inverse Square Law

10. Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

1. Introduction

2. Current Views on the Nature of Light

3. A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

4. A Deflection Mechanism

5. The Bending of Light around Corners

6. Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

7. Angles of Deflection

8. Diffraction Gratings

9. The Inverse Square Law

10. Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

1. Introduction

2. Current Views on the Nature of Light

3. A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

4. A Deflection Mechanism

5. The Bending of Light around Corners

6. Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

7. Angles of Deflection

8. Diffraction Gratings

9. The Inverse Square Law

10. Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

9.       The Inverse Square Law

 

This law states that the intensity of light is proportional to the inverse of the square of distance travelled. It is one of the most fundamental principles of the physics of light, and it is accepted as a fact of life. However, the question may be asked: what is its theoretical underpinning?

 

Light from a candle can easily be understood to follow an inverse square law. Light emitted at any instant spreads out in all directions at the same speed, which suggests it forms a spherical surface, centred on the candle. The area of the spherical surface would be proportional to the square of its radius, which is the distance from the candle. Hence the same amount of light would be spread out ever more thinly over a surface which grew with the square of the distance.

 

It is not quite so obvious why a beam with a smaller solid angle made by shielding most of the light at source should behave in the same way. The assumption is that light in the smaller solid angle does not interact with the light in the rest of the solid angle i.e. the light which would go off in all the other directions, but has been shielded off. It can therefore be treated like a slice out of a cheese which does not affect the rest. Moreover, beams focused by reflectors are thought to behave in the same way.

 

The concept of rotating electromagnetic dipoles suggests that there may be another mechanism. When a beam is shone through the medium of space, it is accepted that light is seen only by the receptor at its end. What is seen must provide all the information the receptor can acquire. There is no information about what else may be going on, because light cannot be seen from the side.

 

But if the process of dipole deflection is occurring, it would mean that a proportion of dipoles would be deflected out of the beam all the way along its path. This would be rather like scattering by dust, which is certainly visible from the side, but a different cause. The intensity of the deflected light would be very low, partly because it would be only a fraction of the energy retained within the beam at each stage, but partly because the solid angle surrounding the beam spreads out any light deflected over a much larger area.

 

Intensity is measured by using light from a standard candle falling on a standard area at a standard distance from the source. Thus if a deflection process is at work, it will already be occurring between the source and the standard area i.e. it is already factored into the measurement, and hence any measurement which is made further down the path of the beam. The measurement provides no information about what may be occurring in the body of the beam or outside the beam, but just what arrives at successive stages of observation.

 

However, understanding the phenomenon requires a look at the whole system. If the deflection mechanism is at work, light from a candle would still lose intensity as on an expanding sphere, because the deflections in different directions between segments would cancel each other out. Every segment would gain as many deflected dipoles as it lost, and the spherical surface concept of the inverse square law would still hold good. It is only when segments are isolated from each other that the interaction between them may be observed, because this removes the possibility of the transfer of dipoles between segments.

 

In energy terms, what does not arrive with the beam must be dispersed on its route to the observer. It disappears into the rest of the solid angle, the part which is not being observed. In any case no energy can be lost from the system as a whole. In spite of the low intensity it may be possible to detect energy lost to the beam in this way.

 

If the proposed mechanism holds good, it raises some fundamental questions about the applicability of the inverse square law to light concentrated in a segment of the solid angle i.e. a beam of light. At some point, which may be calculable or even measurable, a beam of light may have used up all its internal deflections; all the deflected dipoles would have eventually been deflected out into space. The implication would be that the domain in which the inverse square law was valid would have come to an end. All the remaining dipoles would be on parallel paths. Thereafter there would be no reason why the intensity of the light of the beam should diminish at all with distance travelled. This would be an exact parallel of the photon theory, which does not envisage any diminution of intensity with distance.

 

If the intensity of light reaches a constant value at some point, which may be a very long way from its source, it poses some challenging questions for the interpretation of measured intensities of light from stars, for example, and for calculations of their distance from Earth.

 

This effect is quite different from the diminution of energy with distance implied by the phenomenon of redshift. Conventional analysis links redshift, and hence the energy of the light, to the motion of the star emitting the light, even though it can be argued that this breaches the Special Theory of Relativity.

 

A previous paper suggests an alternative theory, namely that the light loses energy exponentially on its way through the medium of space (3). Since energy is proportional to frequency, the frequency of light also decreases exponentially, which produces a shift towards the red end of the spectrum. This is quite apart from diminishing intensity, which is the number of dipoles falling on unit area i.e. the behaviour of a population of dipoles rather than a single dipole.

 

The theory of this paper provides a mechanism by which this redshift could happen; the rotation of dipoles gradually slows down during their passage through the medium of space. This would produce the redshift. It would also imply a mechanism for imparting energy more widely to the medium of space as well as causing a temporary disturbance in it by electromagnetic induction. That would say something about the nature of the medium of space.

 

Lasers may be less susceptible to the deflection process by the very nature of their production. Less deflection would mean a more concentrated beam for longer distances.

 

Lasers with no inherent coincidental deflections might go on for great distances until the redshift effect eventually sapped their energy.

 

10     Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

 

 

a.       Orbital Deflection Mechanism

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The hypothesis is that the dipoles reflected from the source-side of a receptor coincide with oncoming dipoles, and are deflected by orbital interaction. Such an orbital deflection mechanism could be tested by directing two beams of monochrome light from a single source directly at each other and looking for deflection patterns.

 

If the paths of the light were directed by two pairs of prisms, they would arrive in opposition in phase. If, however, one prism was replaced by a mirror, the opposing beams would be out of phase.

 

The deflection patterns would appear on both sides of the opposing beams (Figure 6).

 

 

  1. Source-side Reflection

 

If reflection is an important part of diffraction, the intensity of peaks and lines should change with the reflectivity of the source-side of the receptor, both for pinhole diffraction and gratings.

 

It is already known that partial silvering of surfaces produces remarkable changes in interference, as used in the Fabry-Perot interferometer.

 

Moreover, reflection should also produce a diffraction pattern behind the source. Such a pattern would be an image rather than a mirror image of the diffraction pattern which is conventionally observed.

 

The original Grimaldi effect should also be more definite with a silvered wire.

 

c.       The Inverse Square Law

 

The inverse square law could be put to the test in a number of ways.

 

                                                                i.       It might be possible to detect light emitted from the side of a beam in a totally dust-free space.

 

                                                               ii.       It might be possible to test the law over astronomic distances by measuring intensities of identical sources in space and on Earth.

 

iii. It might be possible to model the inverse square law using a variant on collision theory.

 

d.       Magnetic Fields

 

Magnetic fields should affect both the rate of rotation and the velocity of electromagnetic dipoles i.e. the frequency, speed and direction of light.

 

It may be possible to align dipoles at the point of emission i.e. at the bond by the application of magnetic fields.

 

e.       Polarised Light

 

Light polarised in perpendicular planes should be 180° out of phase. It should be impossible to polarise light in the plane perpendicular to the line of travel i.e. the yz plane.

 

f.         Velocity of light

 

The negative charges produced by charge separation describe different paths through the medium of space for different orientations of the axis of rotation of the dipole, even at the same frequency. Some paths will be longer than others, if they have a component in a third dimension.

 

If it is the velocity of negative charges through the medium of space which is the ultimate limit, dipoles as units may be able to travel faster through the medium of space along the x-axis if the total paths of their negative charges are shorter. The ground they cover per second along the x-axis, which is the speed of light, may be greater.

 

Plane polarised light produces different paths from normal light. It is known to have different refractive indices i.e. velocities in double refraction in some materials. The analysis suggests that it might also have different absolute velocities through the medium of space i.e. in ‘vacuo’. This is open to measurement.

 

In addition, if there are slightly different x-axis speeds for different dipole motions, what we know as the velocity of light may in fact be an average.

 

 

11. Conclusions

 

The theory of progressive rotating electromagnetic dipoles contains enough degrees of freedom to explain the observed phenomena of light, whether they suggest particle or wave behaviour. It may also shed light on polarisation.

 

Such dipoles are reminiscent of Newton’s corpuscles of light, though they differ substantially from Einstein’s photons. It is their separation of charges which give rise to deflections and offer an explanation of wave effects. It is their rotation which gives them a frequency in accordance with Planck’s quantum theory. They are rather like electromagnetic atoms.

 

The deflection process depends on a mechanism which is similar to the interaction of orbits. In effect it appears to make each new geometrical opening a new source of deflected light, which accords with Huyghens’ theory of light waves, secondary sources etc. It also uses the concept of a medium of space, which he considered an integral part of his theory.

 

The broadening of spectral lines from gases is conventionally attributed to the kinetic movement of emitting molecules, though how this movement can affect wavelength is not clear, again in view of Special Relativity. The suggestion here is that it is simply caused by the length of the bond AB at the instant of emission varying under the stimulation of temperature, which may give the same result.

 

Beat frequencies, which are considered to be evidence of waves, may be accounted for in the dipole theory by locating the effect, which is all that can be observed, at the receptor. Receptor bonds which do not accept a mixture of two sorts of dipoles with different frequencies, may resonate with the difference if both arrive together.

 

Nevertheless, the dipole theory is consistent with the discovery of Newton that white light acts as a mixture of colours, and that it can be reconstituted from its parts without change after prismatic separation. Dipoles of different frequencies simply find it difficult to interact.

 

Finally, a rotating dipole theory of light would suggest that magnetic fields could have an effect both on the rate of rotation of the dipole and on its velocity through the medium of space. However, though it may be possible to slow down light, which is after all what happens in a transparent material, it will not be possible to increase its velocity beyond the speed of light in vacuo.

 

Materials limit the speed of light through the action of their particle structures and the nature of the bonds between them. In the same way the medium of space limits the speed of light by its inherent characteristics, which are not susceptible to change.

 

 

A. C. Sturt

 

7 May 2003

 

 

References

 

  1. The Origin of Quanta: a Proposed New Decomposition of the Phenomena of the Physical World by A. C. Sturt 12 March 2003 http://www.churingapublishing.com/quant_1.htm.

 

  1. The Definitions of Physics by A. C. Sturt 25 March 2003 http://www.churingapublishing.com/defin_1.htm.

 

  1. The Timeless Universe IV. The Redshift Exponential by A. C. Sturt 7 Jan 2002 http://www.churingapublishing.com/timeless_13.htm

 


 

 



inverse square

theoretical underpinning?
 



 



 

 
 

deflection of dipoles?

 

 

 

 

 

 


intensity

 




 


 

 

 


 
energy considerations


 


 

inverse square law limits?


 


 

compare exponential loss (redshift)

 



 


 

slowing down of dipoles through space?


 

 

 

lasers

 

 

 

laboratory tests

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Orbital deflection pattern

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

silvered gratings

 

 

Fabry-Perot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

inverse square

 

 

side loss?

 

astronomical?

 

 

computer model of collisions?

 

 

 

 

magnetic fields

 

 

 

 

polarisation

 

 

 

 

 

velocity of different species of helix

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

shades of Newton?

 

 

 

deflection process similar to astronomical orbits

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

different colours

 

 

magnetic fields slow?

 

 

same ultimate limit of velocity of light

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

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