
Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt 


The Nature of Light A Unified Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles 


by
A. C. Sturt 




2. Current Views on the
Nature of Light 3. A Theory of Rotating
Electromagnetic Dipoles 5. The Bending of Light
around Corners 6. Phasing of Interacting
Dipoles 10. Tests of the Theory
of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles 2. Current Views on the
Nature of Light 3. A Theory of Rotating
Electromagnetic Dipoles 5. The Bending of Light
around Corners 6. Phasing of Interacting
Dipoles 10. Tests of the Theory
of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles 

6.
Phasing of Interacting Dipoles
The term “phasing” is used here as the comparative state
of a repetitive process at a particular instant of time. This definition can
be applied to electromagnetic dipoles which are separate entities and
travelling on different paths. If they are repeating the same frequency, then
the same phasing will occur at the instant when they coincide, wherever they
are coming from. The rotation of dipoles travelling at the speed of light
means that their negative poles describe a helix through the medium of space.
The following analysis applies to dextrarotary helices of the same frequency. When two such dipoles travel towards each other on
parallel paths, close enough for them to interact i.e. ‘collide’, the
negative poles interact only if they are 180° out of phase. This is the
phasing at which the poles come closest to each other. This is consistent
with the condition of wave theory that light must be both of the same
frequency and in phase for interference to occur, because production of one
of the helical paths by reflection would cause it to change phase by 180°. The assumption is that phase change does not turn it from
dextra into laevorotary, but only that it sets back or advances rotation of
the dipole by 180° in the same direction of rotation. Similarly, when dipoles travelling in the same direction
are converging on paths which are not quite parallel, they need to be 180°
out of phase for negative poles to interact. In this case dipoles which are
in phase initially will be 180° out of phase when the paths along which they
have travelled differ by a distance d/2 in Figure 3. These are the two limiting cases when the chances of
coincidence of the negative charges is greatest. Both types of coincidence give the same angle of
deflection, which is produced once they have interacted, because it is an
orbital rather than mechanical phenomenon. 7. Angles of Deflection
The proposal is that each deflection adds a velocity v
to a dipolar sphere perpendicular to the straight line joining the centre of
the source to the centre of the receptor. Dipolar spheres coincide with
others which are 180° out of phase to give a deflection of angle θ_{1}
to the direction in which light is travelling. Those which have been
deflected, may be deflected a second time by coincidence with another dipolar
sphere travelling in the opposite direction etc. The velocity of all dipolar
spheres remains the same, the speed of light, before and after deflection.
The result is shown in Figure 4.
From this it can be seen that: . . and where c is the speed of light. The limit imposed on
θ by this mechanism is 90°.
A diffraction grating is a receptor in the form of a thin
opaque film on which the diffracting pinhole has been drawn out to form a
very narrow slot through which light can pass. The grating consists of many
such many such slots parallel to each other, regularly spaced and separated
by wider, opaque sections of the film itself which have not been removed. The
closer the slots, the greater the relative edge effect, described above. In
wave theory terms, the spacing should be comparable to the wavelength of
light which the grating is used to diffract. If a beam of monochromatic light passes through the
grating, each slot produces a well defined diffraction pattern. If the slots
are close, bright bands, called lines, are produced which can be observed at
well defined angles symmetrically on both sides of the incident beam, when
brought together in the focal plane of a lens. Let the distance between the centres of adjacent slots be s,
and let lines be observed at angles θ_{1}, θ_{2},
… θ_{n}, when brought together in the focal plane of a
lens. The reasoning of wave theory is as follows:
can be
derived. §
For the first bright line n = 1, and so from
which λ can be calculated.
The corresponding reasoning for the rotating
electromagnetic dipole theory is as follows:
can be derived.
from
which sin θ_{1} can be calculated.
from
which d can be calculated. §
The frequency of the light is then the velocity
divided by the distance d. 

dipoles
equations as
conventional diffraction patterns wave theory theory of
progressive, rotating electromagnetic dipoles 
Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001 

Churinga
Publishing 