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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 27 November 2004

 



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The Nature of Light

 

A Unified Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

 

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by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

1. Introduction

2. Current Views on the Nature of Light

3. A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

4. A Deflection Mechanism

5. The Bending of Light around Corners

6. Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

7. Angles of Deflection

8. Diffraction Gratings

9. The Inverse Square Law

10. Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

References

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SUMMARY

1. Introduction

2. Current Views on the Nature of Light

3. A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

4. A Deflection Mechanism

5. The Bending of Light around Corners

6. Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

7. Angles of Deflection

8. Diffraction Gratings

9. The Inverse Square Law

10. Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

References

 

 

 

6.       Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

 

The term “phasing” is used here as the comparative state of a repetitive process at a particular instant of time. This definition can be applied to electromagnetic dipoles which are separate entities and travelling on different paths. If they are repeating the same frequency, then the same phasing will occur at the instant when they coincide, wherever they are coming from. The rotation of dipoles travelling at the speed of light means that their negative poles describe a helix through the medium of space. The following analysis applies to dextrarotary helices of the same frequency.

 

When two such dipoles travel towards each other on parallel paths, close enough for them to interact i.e. ‘collide’, the negative poles interact only if they are 180° out of phase. This is the phasing at which the poles come closest to each other. This is consistent with the condition of wave theory that light must be both of the same frequency and in phase for interference to occur, because production of one of the helical paths by reflection would cause it to change phase by 180°.

 

The assumption is that phase change does not turn it from dextra into laevorotary, but only that it sets back or advances rotation of the dipole by 180° in the same direction of rotation.

 

Similarly, when dipoles travelling in the same direction are converging on paths which are not quite parallel, they need to be 180° out of phase for negative poles to interact. In this case dipoles which are in phase initially will be 180° out of phase when the paths along which they have travelled differ by a distance d/2 in Figure 3.

 

These are the two limiting cases when the chances of coincidence of the negative charges is greatest.

 

Both types of coincidence give the same angle of deflection, which is produced once they have interacted, because it is an orbital rather than mechanical phenomenon.

 

7.       Angles of Deflection

 

The proposal is that each deflection adds a velocity v to a dipolar sphere perpendicular to the straight line joining the centre of the source to the centre of the receptor. Dipolar spheres coincide with others which are 180° out of phase to give a deflection of angle θ1 to the direction in which light is travelling. Those which have been deflected, may be deflected a second time by coincidence with another dipolar sphere travelling in the opposite direction etc. The velocity of all dipolar spheres remains the same, the speed of light, before and after deflection. The result is shown in Figure 4.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


From this it can be seen that:

 

 

 

 

.

.

and

 

where c is the speed of light. The limit imposed on θ by this mechanism is 90°.

 

 

  1. Diffraction Gratings

 

A diffraction grating is a receptor in the form of a thin opaque film on which the diffracting pinhole has been drawn out to form a very narrow slot through which light can pass. The grating consists of many such many such slots parallel to each other, regularly spaced and separated by wider, opaque sections of the film itself which have not been removed. The closer the slots, the greater the relative edge effect, described above. In wave theory terms, the spacing should be comparable to the wavelength of light which the grating is used to diffract.

 

If a beam of monochromatic light passes through the grating, each slot produces a well defined diffraction pattern. If the slots are close, bright bands, called lines, are produced which can be observed at well defined angles symmetrically on both sides of the incident beam, when brought together in the focal plane of a lens.

 

Let the distance between the centres of adjacent slots be s, and let lines be observed at angles θ1, θ2, … θn, when brought together in the focal plane of a lens.

 

The reasoning of wave theory is as follows:

 

    1. Light is a wave motion, and so it has a wavelength.

 

    1. The wavelength λ is the distance travelled by light between peaks.

 

    1. The wavelength determines the angles through which light is refracted.

 

    1. If rays of light from different slots form a bright line when observed with a telescope, it is because their paths differ in length by a whole wavelength, so that their peaks reinforce.

 

    1. The first bright line therefore corresponds to a difference of λ, which is called the first order diffraction image. The second band corresponds to 2λ, which is the second order diffraction image, the nth bright line corresponds to nλ and so on. This is set out in Figure 5.

 

    1. From this the relationship:

 

 

can be derived.

 

§         For the first bright line n = 1, and so

 

 

from which λ can be calculated.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


The corresponding reasoning for the rotating electromagnetic dipole theory is as follows:

 

  • Light consists of progressive, rotating electromagnetic dipoles.

 

  • The frequency of light f is the frequency of rotation of its dipoles i.e. the number of cycles per second.

 

  • Frequency determines the angles through which light is refracted.

 

  • The distance d in Figure 3 is the distance a dipole travels between the same points in the cycle i.e. in phase.

 

  • Bright lines are produced when dipoles are in phase.

 

  • The first bright line corresponds to the first orbital deflection, the second line corresponds to the second orbital deflection, the nth line corresponds to the nth orbital deflection etc.

 

  • From this the relationship:

 

 

can be derived.

 

  •  The nth deflection produces an angle θn such that:

 

 

from which sin θ1 can be calculated.

 

 

  • From the equation, when n = 1, θ = θ1 and

 

 

from which d can be calculated.

 

§        The frequency of the light is then the velocity divided by the distance d.

 


 

 



 

dipoles

in fact describe helices as they travel



coincidence of helices

 

 


dextra and laevo remain different species

but 180° phase change

 
 

 


angles of deflection

 

 

 

 

 


 

 





 


 

 

 


 



 









 


 




 




 


 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

equations as conventional

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

diffraction patterns

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

wave theory

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

theory of progressive, rotating electromagnetic dipoles

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 5

 

 

Churinga Publishing

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