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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 27 November 2004


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The Nature of Light


A Unified Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles




by A. C. Sturt








1. Introduction

2. Current Views on the Nature of Light

3. A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

4. A Deflection Mechanism

5. The Bending of Light around Corners

6. Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

7. Angles of Deflection

8. Diffraction Gratings

9. The Inverse Square Law

10. Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles










































1. Introduction

2. Current Views on the Nature of Light

3. A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles

4. A Deflection Mechanism

5. The Bending of Light around Corners

6. Phasing of Interacting Dipoles

7. Angles of Deflection

8. Diffraction Gratings

9. The Inverse Square Law

10. Tests of the Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles






3.       A Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles


Rotating electromagnetic dipoles may form the basis of a new theory which begins to bridge the gap between particle and wave theories as follows.


Excitation of a bond at the level of atomic particles means that the electrons which form the link are charging up and down ever more vigorously. If there are particles A and B, the bond might be considered as in Figure 1, where the dotted line represents the movement of electrons.













The hypothesis is that the movement of electrons gives rise to a local disturbance in the medium of space by the known process of electromagnetic induction. The flow of electrons along the bond between A and B generates what is in effect a circular electric current. The circular flow of current around the disturbance represents a separation of charges between the centre and the periphery, which can be represented as a rotating electric vector (Figure 2).


The orientation of  the circular flow may vary after separation from the bond to create what is in effect a spherical shell, which gives a structure analogous to that of an atom. The negative shell prevents the disturbance from merging with other such disturbances.


The same process generates a magnetic field around the bond AB, perpendicular to the flow of electrons, which gives the charged sphere a thrust out into the medium of space.

























At a particular energy level of excitation, which may be called its electromagnetic activation energy, similar to the term used to characterise the resistance to the formation of chemical bonds, the bond ejects the disturbance, and returns to its ground state. The electromagnetic activation energy and the quantity of energy emitted would be characteristic of and unique to that type of bond.


This is consistent with Planck’s conclusion that energy was emitted in discrete quantities which he called quanta. If this is the sort of process which occurs in the emission of electromagnetic radiation, the result is:


  • A discrete entity is created in the form of a rotating dipole which may be conveniently represented by a sphere. This entity is a quantum.


  • The sphere has in effect a charged shell which maintains its integrity in proximity to other charged spheres.


  • The sphere has frequency in the form of the rotation of the electric vector. The number of rotations per unit time is the frequency of the emission.


  • There is a notional dimension of the sphere in the form of the distance implicit in the term separation of charges.


  • A determinate quantity of energy is transmitted, since it depends entirely on the period of vibration of the AB bond. This accords with Planck’s quantum theory.


  • The direction in which the dipolar disturbance is ejected will depend on the orientation of the AB bond, though it may not be perpendicularly up from the ‘bowstring’ linking the two particles in the diagram. It may in fact be perpendicular to the plane of the page because of magnetic repulsion.


  • If the number of bonds were large enough, which is the normal situation, electromagnetic disturbances would be emitted in all directions at random. This is the candle effect.


  • The time at which any particular bond emitted a quantum would depend on the  conditions in its locality, and so for the bulk material it would be in effect random.


  • The velocity of all such electromagnetic dipolar disturbances through the medium of space would be the same irrespective of the frequency of rotation of the electric vector. It would depend only on the electromagnetic characteristics of the medium of space.


  • The electromagnetic characteristics of the medium of space would also set the limiting value, the speed of light.


  • There is no reason to think that such an electromagnetic dipole would travel in anything other than a straight line in vacuo.


  • Electromagnetic dipoles rotating in this way have both the energy and the frequency of vibration to regenerate vibrations in a receptor of the appropriate frequencies when they come into contact with particulate structures after transport through the medium of space.


  • How effective the ‘shell’ is as a protector of the entity may depend on frequency. Higher energy, and hence higher frequency, may make a more impenetrable shell.


  • There is no loss of energy from such an electromagnetic disturbance during transit except to the medium of space.


  • Such a loss of energy would manifest itself as a reduction in the rate of rotation of the electric vector i.e. reduced frequency.


  • Some loss of energy in transit may be necessary for the bonds of the particle structure of the receptor to accept it instead of passing it straight on.


It is the vibration of the bond AB which imparts velocity to the electromagnetic sphere for its transit across space i.e. the speed of light. It may be that the ‘geometry’ of the sphere, which is essentially the size and degree of separation of charges, compensates by some electromagnetic mechanism to ensure that its velocity through space remains constant for different rates of rotation of the vector i.e. different frequencies. Energy in the spherical disturbance would depend on the frequency of rotation of the dipole, which is consistent with Planck’s quantum theory.


The overall effect is to turn heat into bond vibrations, and bond vibrations into electromagnetic radiation which is transported through space. The process is reversed when the radiation meets and interacts with another particulate structure, the receptor, and causes bond vibration and hence heat – a redistribution mechanism.


The phenomenon of polarisation is accommodated in this model by the sphericity of the electromagnetic disturbance.


As the sphere travels in, say, the direction of the x-axis, the dipole rotates, and the negative charge describes a wave which is sinusoidal in three dimensions. In addition the axis of rotation of the dipole can vary in orientation as the disturbance moves forward. Unless there is some characteristic of the bond to prevent it rotation raises the possibility of two types of ‘helical’ motion: dextrorotary and laevorotary. This would produce two species of sphere which could never become identical, though it is not clear that this would make any difference to a receptor. The origin of this asymmetry is the direction of movement of the electrons along the bond AB at the instant when the sphere formed, and hence the direction imparted to the circular electric current.


Polarisation occurs when light is transmitted through certain types of material. In this case the three dimensional rotation of the dipole would in effect be constrained to two dimensions; the sphere would be compressed to a circle, perhaps by absorption of components in one of the dimensions. The path of the negative charge would then be a pure sine wave within the xy or xz planes. The two opposing directions of the initial circular electric currents would give identical sine waves 180° out of phase.


Thus there could be three species of sinusoidal wave described by a negative charge in this model: dextrorotary and laevorotary in three dimensions and the simple planar sine wave. This would add a new dimension to the question of coherence, and it would certainly affect the outcome if such electromagnetic disturbances came into coincidence. What is clear is that electromagnetic vibrations polarised in this way could not be reconstituted into their original form by mixing them, because there is no way of reintroducing the random three-dimensional element.


Polarisation is also produced by reflection at a surface. In wave theory vibrations are said to be resolved into two components, one which is absorbed and the other which is reflected as a plane polarised wave. The same argument could be applied to the new model, and similar reasoning could account for the phase change on reflection.


The problem then is to reconcile the model of progressing, electromagnetic dipoles which rotate in three dimensions with the observation that light can apparently travel around corners.




bond excitation





electromagnetic induction


circular current





magnetic field









electromagnetic activation energy


unique to bond

explanation of quanta



frequency is rate of rotation of electric vector


discrete quantity of energy




velocity through medium of space



speed of light


straight lines



dipoles have both energy and frequency





no loss in transit except to medium of space







constant velocity compensation mechanism?




reverse process at receptor











different species




polarisation 2D?













phase change



travel around corners?




Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 3



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