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Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 7 December 2004

 



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An Electrodynamic Model of Atomic Structure

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by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 


Summary

1. Introduction

2. An alternative physical model

3. The equivalence of forces

a.      Gravity

b.      Definition of force

c.      Electrical charges and magnetic poles

d.      Possible interactions

4.Uniform motion in a circle

5.Proposed model of the simplest atom

a.      Basic structure

b.      Displacement of the electron

6. Magnitude of electromagnetic quanta

7. Elliptical orbits

a.      Ellipse in the same plane

b.      Ellipse in an inclined plane

8. The helium atom

a.      Proposed structure of helium nucleus

b.      Atomic radius of helium

c.      Magnetic field in the helium atom

d.      Deflection of electron

e.      Potential interaction of helium atoms

9. Atomic structures from lithium to neon

10. The first complete sphere

11. Higher atomic numbers

12. Atomic radii and chemistry

13. Discussion

References

Addendum – fission of nuclei

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Summary

1. Introduction

2. An alternative physical model

3. The equivalence of forces

e.      Gravity

f.        Definition of force

g.      Electrical charges and magnetic poles

h.      Possible interactions

4.Uniform motion in a circle

5.Proposed model of the simplest atom

c.      Basic structure

d.      Displacement of the electron

6. Magnitude of electromagnetic quanta

7. Elliptical orbits

c.      Ellipse in the same plane

d.      Ellipse in an inclined plane

8. The helium atom

f.        Proposed structure of helium nucleus

g.      Atomic radius of helium

h.      Magnetic field in the helium atom

i.         Deflection of electron

j.         Potential interaction of helium atoms

9. Atomic structures from lithium to neon

10. The first complete sphere

11. Higher atomic numbers

12. Atomic radii and chemistry

13. Discussion

References

Addendum – fission of nuclei

 

 

13.   Discussion

 

The operation of the atom presented here lends itself very much to computer modelling, because of the balance of forces etc. However, it is implicit in the analysis that the parameters which feed the model may need re-examination in the light of the inertial field effect.

 

If resistance to the acceleration of mass increases hyperbolically with velocity through the medium of space, it may be that other phenomena which depend on the medium of space, such as charge, are also influenced by velocity. This will not normally be apparent, because the accepted values of parameters are those which have been measured under static conditions. However, when bodies or charges interact with the medium of space and with each other at velocities approaching the speed of light, the magnitude of their interactions may increase.

 

Thus it is possible that the gravitational attraction between two bodies, both moving at a velocity which is a significant fraction of the speed of light, may not be quite the same as at rest. In other words, the value of G, the Universal Constant of Gravitation, may change with velocity.

 

There is the further possibility that the phenomena may interact, so that, for example, a charged mass may encounter a different magnitude of inertial resistance from that encountered by mass alone, as velocity increases. This would change the hyperbolic curve of force required to produce unit acceleration against velocity. In particular it would cause a shift in the asymptote representing limiting velocity away from the speed of light.

 

The effect would be to introduce a constant α into the expression for the Inertial Resistance Factor (3). If the new factor is Rα and α>1 then

 

 

so that the asymptote occurs when

 

*      

 

or when

 

 

Since charge always comes in association with a mass, what is basically needed, if it were possible, is a purely mechanical method of measuring mass without the complications of electrical or magnetic phenomena. However, at velocities approaching the speed of light this may be extremely difficult to achieve experimentally. Nevertheless it might be possible to investigate the inertial resistance for particles of different charges and different masses using an orthogonal experimental design.

 

Any interaction detected would be relevant to the comparison of masses by mass spectroscopy. This would be one of the major parameters of a computer model.

 

It is also possible that the measurement of atomic radii may need to be re-examined in the light of the likelihood that charged particles such as electrons interact with material structures by orbital interaction. There is no suggestion that momentum is not conserved, but the directions which particles take after interaction may represent deflections of orbits rather than classical rebounds. What is observed in bulk may not be directly applicable to single charged particles, since the bulk may average out such effects.

 

There is the further possibility that the electrical field generated by a moving charge may depend on the velocity of the charge through the medium of space. This is already implicit in the definition of electric current, which is the movement of charge per unit time. But conventional relationships refer to current in which electron velocities may be very low. The phenomenon could be quite different with electrical charges moving at a velocity which was a significant fraction of the speed of light.

 

Similarly, it is possible with electrical phenomena that the attractive force of opposite charges or the repulsive force of like charges may vary with velocity. It is also possible that the strength of magnetic fields generated by moving charges may vary with velocity, as in electromagnetism.

 

The reason for raising these questions is the apparent interchangeability of mass and energy in, for instance, the binding energies of atomic nuclei. This is considered to be the explanation of the apparent loss of mass when particles come together to form an atomic nucleus.

 

However, the thesis of the present analysis is that energy is never interchangeable with mass. The corollary would be that the measurement of the mass of particles in a bottle in the laboratory may be different from the measurement of mass at high velocities, especially if charged. This would not be to discount binding energy, but rather suggest that the apparent loss of mass did not represent its magnitude. It may be that whatever affects the acceleration of mass at high velocities holds a clue to the nature of what binds nuclear particles together.

 

Then there is the question of rotation. The model is one which embodies circular motion, both in the form of electronic orbits and in the spinning of nuclei. However, there is no reason to believe that the phenomenon stops there. It has already been suggested that the proton of the hydrogen atom may not only rotate but present its positive charge to the electron in some way. There is no reason to believe that the electron does not in some way reciprocate.

 

Furthermore, when protons and neutrons, as well as electrons, of course, become bound in an atomic structure, there is no reason to believe that this prevents them from rotating on their axes.

 

If this is so, there exists a host of possibilities of clockwise and anticlockwise spin of every particle in association in structures, even down to the most fundamental. Different combinations of rotation may conceivably lead to local distributions of properties in what are ostensibly identical atomic structures. What is conventionally observed may be only the bulk properties; at the level of small particles it might be quite different.

 

Finally there is the separation of charges. The analysis suggests that the charges on electrons and protons may be superficial and mobile i.e. they may not permeate the body of the particle. If so, there may be smaller charges than that on the electron. It is possible that the charge on the electron may appear to be a unit because electrons are what we observe.

 

To sum up, there are enough degrees of freedom in the model to encompass the observed mechanical, electrical and magnetic phenomena, and account for the spectra of electromagnetic emissions. The model depends on the existence of a medium of space, and the inertial resistance effect on mass.

 

This is crucial for the analysis, and tests to confirm the phenomenon have already been proposed. If successful, it will mark a step on the way to establishing what connects all these phenomena together to form one Universal system.

 

 

A C Sturt

 

3 October 2003

 

Corrections and minor additions 25 June 2004

 

 

References

 

1.       On The Nature of Things - A Time and Space Odyssey by A.C. Sturt 26 May 2003. http://www.churingapublishing.com/odyss_1.htm

 

2.       The Nature of Light-- A Unified Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles by A C Sturt 7 May 2003 http://www.churingapublishing.com/relite_1.htm

 

  1. Mass in the Universal Inertial Field – A Revised Version by A C Sturt 18 Sep 2003. http://www.churingapublishing.com/numass_1.htm

 

  1. Quoted in Physics, Ohanian, Norton Second Edition p587

 

“It is inconceivable, that inanimate brute matter, should, without the mediation of something else, which is not material, operate on and affect other matter without mutual contact. That Gravity should be innate, inherent and essential to Matter so that one Body may act upon another at a Distance thro’ a Vacuum without the Mediation of anything else, by and through which their Action and Force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an Absurdity that I believe no Man who has in philosophical Matters a competent manner of thinking can ever fall into it. Gravity must be caused by an Agent acting constantly according to certain Laws; but whether this agent be material or immaterial, I have left to the consideration of my readers.”

 

Isaac Newton.

 

 

 

Addendum - Fission of Nuclei

 

A large nucleus may split under the impact of, say, a neutron. The analysis of this paper suggests that the result may be a dissipation of energy as follows.

 

The nucleus splits into two smaller, positively charged nuclei which therefore repel each other and recede through the medium of space at very high velocities. Their acceleration results in emission of electromagnetic energy at wavelengths which are determined by the nature of the two nuclei and their velocities through the medium of space at the instant of emission. The electrons rearrange themselves around the two new nuclei, and cause the emission of electromagnetic radiation as each electron accelerates back to its most stable state around its nucleus. The result is a spectrum of electromagnetic radiation which is characteristic of the decomposition of the large nucleus.

 

The result of the fission of the large nucleus is therefore:

 

-         an explosion at high velocity of particles having kinetic energy, and therefore mass, and

 

-         emission of a spectrum of radiation at the speed of light.

 

The indication of the fission of the nucleus will be arrival of the spectrum of electromagnetic radiation, because it travels faster, followed by the explosion of particles of matter having the property of mass. This is what seems to be observed in practice.

 


 



computer modelling



interactions at high velocities?





G change with velocity?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 
 

 



 


 




 

 





 


 


 

 

 




 


 





rotation and charge separation?

 





spin

 

 

 

 

 

electric charges superficial?

 

 

 

 

basis of one Universal system?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Newton

 

 

medium of space?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

explosion

 

 

 

predicted sequence of emissions

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

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