PAGE 1

 

Churinga Publishing

 

V

 

 

Books and publications on the interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt
Economics, politics, science, archaeology. Page uploaded 7 December 2004

 



Page 5/6

PDF PRINTABLE VERSION

An Electrodynamic Model of Atomic Structure

NEXT PAGE

 

by A. C. Sturt

 

 

 

 

 


Summary

1. Introduction

2. An alternative physical model

3. The equivalence of forces

a.      Gravity

b.      Definition of force

c.      Electrical charges and magnetic poles

d.      Possible interactions

4.Uniform motion in a circle

5.Proposed model of the simplest atom

a.      Basic structure

b.      Displacement of the electron

6. Magnitude of electromagnetic quanta

7. Elliptical orbits

a.      Ellipse in the same plane

b.      Ellipse in an inclined plane

8. The helium atom

a.      Proposed structure of helium nucleus

b.      Atomic radius of helium

c.      Magnetic field in the helium atom

d.      Deflection of electron

e.      Potential interaction of helium atoms

9. Atomic structures from lithium to neon

10. The first complete sphere

11. Higher atomic numbers

12. Atomic radii and chemistry

13. Discussion

References

Addendum – fission of nuclei

Summary

1. Introduction

2. An alternative physical model

3. The equivalence of forces

e.      Gravity

f.        Definition of force

g.      Electrical charges and magnetic poles

h.      Possible interactions

4.Uniform motion in a circle

5.Proposed model of the simplest atom

c.      Basic structure

d.      Displacement of the electron

6. Magnitude of electromagnetic quanta

7. Elliptical orbits

c.      Ellipse in the same plane

d.      Ellipse in an inclined plane

8. The helium atom

f.        Proposed structure of helium nucleus

g.      Atomic radius of helium

h.      Magnetic field in the helium atom

i.         Deflection of electron

j.         Potential interaction of helium atoms

13. Discussion

Addendum – fission of nuclei

 

 

 

9. Atomic Structures from Lithium to Neon

 

The next element in the series is lithium with one more orbiting electron and a nucleus which contains one more proton and two more neutrons. It is suggested here that the additional electron goes into an orbit in a plane at right angles to the first. If the two electrons of helium orbit around the equator in the same sense but diametrically opposite each other, then the third electron goes into an orbit over the poles, where it interacts least with the other electrons. The third electron is the same distance from the nucleus as the other two, and travels at the same speed, but its timing is such that it crosses their orbit when they are furthest away.

 

It seems likely that the fourth electron, in the element beryllium, will enter the same polar orbit and travel in the same sense as the third, but in a diametrically opposite position. The orbits are synchronised so that as these two electrons leave the poles, say along 0° and 180° of longitude, the electrons in the equatorial orbit move along the equator to cut the lines of longitude at 90° and 270°. Thus all four electrons stay as far apart as possible at the same distance from the nucleus.

 

The next electron, in the element boron, enters an orbit on a north east/south west great circle, again timed to cross the other orbits so as to stay as far away from the other electrons as possible. The sixth electron, in the carbon atom, enters the same orbit in the same sense at the same speed, but in a diametrically opposite position, thus preserving the configuration established by the previous addition.

 

Similarly the next electron, in the nitrogen atom, enters a north west/ south east great circle orbit, and the eighth electron, in oxygen, enters the same orbit in the same sense at the same speed but in a diametrically opposite position.

 

The last pair of electrons, in fluorine and neon, enter a third ‘diagonal’ great circle.

 

The final result is that the five great circles are so spaced, and the electrons are so phased, as to maintain maximum distance between all electrons on the surface of the shell at all times.

 

 

10.   The First Complete Sphere

 

Thus in the atomic series from hydrogen to neon the electrons of each species have identical orbital speeds and radii. They are not segregated into arbitrary shells, as in the current models. Successive electrons form pairs travelling in the same direction but at opposite ends of the diameters.

 

The analysis is as follows. There is no reason to believe that electrons are in any way differentiated. They will all seek a position as close to the nucleus as possible. As each additional electron joins the atom, the others move over to accommodate it, provided the force attracting it to the nucleus is greater than the force needed to make the others shift. They are in the same shell.

 

The radius at each stage depends on the balance of attractive and repulsive forces. Each electron is pulled closer to the nucleus by its increased mass and positive charge as atomic weight increases, but it is pushed further away by the negative charges of the other electrons in the shell.

 

The force of attraction F between each electron and the nucleus containing x protons and y neutrons is:

 

 

 

where r0 is the radius of the orbit in the ground state, and the assumption is that there is no interaction between gravitational and electrical components of force.

 

Individual electrons do not have to have different energies to give different successive energies of ionisation for the atom. As one is removed, the others accommodate into a new stable configuration.

 

It might be expected for the sake of symmetry that the stable number of great-circular orbits would be 1,2,3,4,6 etc, but in fact it appears to be 5. This then is the maximum number which is compatible both with equal velocity of all electrons and with the synchronicity which prevents them from ever approaching too close against the force of their opposing like charges. The next electron would be too many for stability; the accommodation would be too great.

 

Thus the balance and synchronicity of the orbits ensures that the electrons are always as far away from each other as possible with this arrangement. At any instant of time each has the maximum space around it. If there were any tendency for one to slow or speed up, interaction with the other electrons through their mutually repulsive charges would bring them back into line. They form a self-regulating system of ten electrons.

 

This is the atomic structure of the inert gas neon.

 

 

11.   Higher Atomic Numbers

 

There comes a stage at which the force required to expand the orbits of the existing electrons is greater than the force which is attracting a new entrant towards the nucleus. The result is that it cannot penetrate their sphere of orbit, and must assume an orbit of its own further away from the nucleus. The particular orbit which it adopts will be one which gives minimum interaction with the other electrons as it passes over their shell. Its line velocity will be slower than theirs.

 

 

12.   Atomic Radii and Chemistry

 

The model is compatible with both the chemical attributes and the sizes of atoms of increasing atomic number.

 

The completed sphere of electrons corresponds to the number of electrons in inert gases. Since the next additional electron is out on its own, it is likely to be more reactive chemically than those occupying the inner sphere. It will also be monovalent. So sodium is the reactive, monovalent element which follows the inert gas neon in the Periodic Table.

 

Atomic radii decrease with atomic number as the nucleus increases in mass and charge, because electrons are pulled closer, which also increases their line velocities. Then at some point the structure begins to open up again until the last additional electron to enter the shell expands the structure to the point of ‘saturation’. At this point the radius of the element, which is the inert gas neon, jumps to a much higher level. The next additional electron, in the element sodium, is much more loosely bound, and so further from the nucleus and slower. This is in agreement with the measured atomic radius of sodium which is greater than that of neon. At atomic numbers higher than sodium the increasing nuclear charge causes atomic radius to begin to decrease again.

 

The same pattern occurs with argon and potassium. Atomic radius increases in a looping fashion with increasing atomic number.

 

The volume of the atom expands and shrinks according to the forces of attraction and repulsion. The result is different from that predicted by other models in the sense that all 10 electrons are in the same orbit or ‘shell’. The ‘1s, 2s and 2p electrons’ of conventional analysis are a rationalisation of the response of the remaining electrons in this model, as they accommodate to the removal of successive electrons.

 

The shape of the atom becomes more spherical with increasing atomic number, so that the magnetic effects described for hydrogen and helium progressively balance each other out. At higher atomic weights, the removal of an electron does not cause as great a reaction in the form of nuclear spin or wobble.

 


 



 

lithium

 





beryllium


 

boron
 

carbon

 

 

nitrogen

 

 

neon

5 great circles complete shell
 

 

all electrons in the shell are identical

 

different from Bohr shell


 




 

 




assumes no gravitational electrical interaction


 


synchronicity

 

 


self regulating

 

inert gas neon

 



next electron forced into new shell

slower

 





 

 

 

valencies

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bohr shells are rationalisation of this process

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001

continued on Page 6

 

 

Churinga Publishing

^