
Books and publications on the
interaction of systems in real time by A. C. Sturt 


An Electrodynamic Model of Atomic Structure 


by
A. C. Sturt 




2. An alternative
physical model a. Gravity c. Electrical
charges and magnetic poles 5.Proposed model of the simplest atom b. Displacement of the electron 6. Magnitude
of electromagnetic quanta 7.
Elliptical orbits b. Ellipse
in an inclined plane a. Proposed
structure of helium nucleus c. Magnetic
field in the helium atom e. Potential
interaction of helium atoms 9. Atomic structures
from lithium to neon 12. Atomic radii and
chemistry 2. An alternative
physical model e. Gravity g. Electrical
charges and magnetic poles 5.Proposed model of the simplest atom d. Displacement of the electron 6. Magnitude
of electromagnetic quanta 7.
Elliptical orbits d. Ellipse
in an inclined plane f.
Proposed structure of
helium nucleus h. Magnetic
field in the helium atom j.
Potential interaction
of helium atoms 9. Atomic structures
from lithium to neon 12. Atomic radii and
chemistry 2. An alternative
physical model i.
Gravity k. Electrical
charges and magnetic poles 5.Proposed model of the simplest atom f.
Displacement of the
electron 6. Magnitude
of electromagnetic quanta 7.
Elliptical orbits f.
Ellipse in an inclined
plane k. Proposed
structure of helium nucleus m. Magnetic
field in the helium atom o. Potential
interaction of helium atoms 9. Atomic structures
from lithium to neon 

5.
Proposed Model of the Simplest Atom a.
Basic structure The simplest atom, hydrogen, is
a stable entity composed of a nucleus in the form of a proton around which an
electron circulates. The line velocity of the electron is a significant
fraction of the speed of light. The atom is filled with the medium of space,
which according to our previous analysis provides inertial resistance. The
mass of the nucleus (m_{p}) is much greater than that of the electron
(m_{e}), but their charges are of equal and opposite magnitude. The electron is held at a distance
r_{0} from the nucleus by the balance of the attractive gravitational
and electrical forces and the centrifugal force of the circular orbit. This
is the ground state. Thus The term for gravitational
attraction is included because the process takes place in the presence of the
gravitational field. The orbit is not necessarily circular; it may be an
ellipse of nearly zero eccentricity, but it can be treated as a circle to a
first approximation. The assumption is that the total
effect is the sum of the gravitational and the charge effects, but there may
be an interaction which could be important if both increase in magnitude with
velocity. The electron circulates at a
constant line velocity, and so there is no electromagnetic emission. The
electron is an electric current, which by convention is considered to flow in
the opposite direction, and according to Laplace’s Law it generates a
magnetic intensity which exerts a force on a positive charge at the centre of
the atom along the axis. The direction of the force is given by the corkscrew
rule. The hypothesis is that there is
a separation of charge on the nucleus, the corollary of which is that charge
moves on the surface of the particle. The nucleus rotates in the same sense
as the electron moves in orbit, which is equivalent to an electric current in
the opposite direction to that represented by the electron. It rotates at
such a rate, and the separation of charges is such, that it generates a
magnetic field equal and opposite to that generated by the electron. When the
electron and proton have approached close enough to form a stable entity, the
magnetic effect holds them so that the electron orbits the nucleus in a plane
i.e. the atom takes the form of a disc. Since the disc has a mechanical
axis of rotation, and its components have mass, it has angular momentum and
may undergo precession. However, it cannot be assumed
that the axis of the rotating proton entity always coincides with the axis of
the atom. It seems likely that the nucleus wobbles like a star and a planet,
which itself may add to the separation of charge if, for instance, the
positive charge is on the outside of the nuclear orbit as a result of the
attractive influence of the electron. b.
Displacement of the electron If the electron is deflected by
some means, it orbits further away from the nucleus, but still within the
same plane. There is no increase of line velocity of the electron during
deflection, and so there is no emission of electromagnetic radiation from
that cause. However as the forces of attraction begin to pull the electron
back towards the nucleus, line velocity in the medium of space increases
until the activation energy of emission is reached, and a quantum of
electromagnetic radiation hf is emitted. The emission of the quantum of
energy stops acceleration for an instant at a distance of, say, r_{n1}
from the nucleus, and leaves the electron with kinetic energy ½m(v_{n1})^{2} where constant velocity v_{n1}>v_{n}. The electron immediately resumes
its acceleration. When its line velocity reaches the activation energy of
emission, it emits another quantum of electromagnetic radiation. This quantum
of energy is greater than the first, because it is emitted at an increased
line velocity, according to the factor R in the inertial field analysis. The
higher energy manifests itself as higher frequency radiation. The emission of the quantum of
energy leaves the electron closer to the nucleus at distance r_{n2}
with kinetic energy ½m(v_{n2})^{2} as before, but the value
of the constant velocity is now greater than before the quantum was emitted
i.e (v_{n2})>(v_{n1}). And so on. Thus the emission of quanta
determines the distance between ‘orbits’. These ‘orbits’ represent the
instants of constant velocity at which no quantum of electromagnetic
radiation is being generated and emitted. The progressive increase of the
energies of quanta emitted as the electron descends to ground state results
from the progressive increase of velocities at which the emission takes place
through interaction with the inertial field. The model is shown schematically
in Figure 1
The process is summarised in
Table 1 below. Velocity, kinetic energy and emitted quantum energy increase
as the electron approaches the ground state. Quanta are labelled according to
the ‘orbit’ into which the electron falls.
Table 1 Succession of Quantum Emissions
Thus 
The line velocity of the
electron and hence its kinetic energy increase as it drops back towards the
nucleus. 
One quantum hf_{n} is
the energy generated in the inertial resistance field and emitted as the electron
drops back from the ‘orbit’ r_{n}, in which the velocity is constant,
to the ‘orbit’ r_{n1} at which line velocity is also constant, but
greater. 
It is the quantum hf_{n1}
which determines the difference between r_{n} and r_{n1}. 6.
Magnitude of Electromagnetic Quanta The forces which attract the
electron back towards the ground state accelerate it from one constant
velocity to another with emission of a quantum of electromagnetic radiation.
The magnitude of this quantum of radiation can be calculated from the work
done against the inertial field during the process of increasing velocities. According to the analysis of
inertial resistance (3), the energy W_{f} required to overcome the inertial field in accelerating from v
to v+dv is the difference between the total energy expended and that which is
consumed in increasing the Newtonian kinetic energy. This is given by the
following expression: where R is the Inertial
Resistance Parameter. In the model of the atom
proposed here, the parameter W_{f}
is the energy of the quantum of light emitted. Using the notation developed
above, the quantum of energy emitted in accelerating an electron from
velocity v to velocity v_{n1} is therefore 7.
Elliptical Orbits The electron may be deflected
entirely out of a circular orbit into an ellipse, which has eccentricity. Two
possibilities result from this: the ellipse may be in the same plane as the
circular orbit, or it may be inclined at an angle to the plane. a.
Ellipse in the same plane The line velocity in an
elliptical orbit is no longer constant, but greatest when the electron
approaches its closest to the nucleus. The increase of velocity as it orbits
the nucleus causes the emission of a quantum of radiation. The magnitude of
the quantum is smaller than in circular orbit, because the velocity is lower.
The reduction of energy may thus cause a sequence of emissions which brings
the electron back to circular orbit, from which it drops back to ground
state. The orbit may also rotate in the plane as the Earth around the Sun,
but this additional motion may not involve enough energy to cause a change in
the pattern of emissions. The nucleus responds to
deflection of the electron through the forces of attraction by changing the
rate of rotation, changing the separation of charges and greater oscillation
within the plane. b.
Ellipse in an inclined plane If the deflection causes the
electron to orbit out of the plane of the circle, the change of angular
momentum causes precession of the elliptical orbit. This also causes the
nucleus to precess. The result is a different series of changes of velocity
and emission of quanta of electromagnetic energy to bring both rotations back
into the same plane. This is followed by the sequence of emissions which
brings the orbit back to a circle.

Only orbits for which mrω x
2πr were a multiple of Planck’s constant did not emit radiation. 
Each of these orbits was
characterised by a number in order of increasing energy. 
A single quantum of
electromagnetic radiation was emitted when the electron dropped from an orbit
to the orbit with the next lower number. 
The orbital number determined
the size of the quantum of electromagnetic radiation emitted. However, these hypotheses were
not justified by reference to physical mechanisms. 

no e.m. emission Laplace
quanta and velocities quantum of energy
emitted eccentric orbits different quanta Bohr model
assumptions not justified by
physical mechanisms 
Copyright A. C. Sturt 27 September 2001 

Churinga
Publishing 