Gravity, Inertia, Electric Charge, Magnetism and Electromagnetic Radiation

- A Possible Approach to a Combined Model

This is the end of tears

No more lament!

Sophocles

Summary

A model is developed which links gravity, inertia, electric charge, magnetic fields and light. The analysis begins with a new approach which imposes a velocity of change on the gravitational attraction expressed in Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation. It concludes that acceleration of mass causes distortion of the medium of space which results in the emission of electromagnetic radiation. This is consistent with a previous analysis which develops the concept of a Universal inertial field that resists acceleration of mass. A distinction is drawn between the medium of space and space itself, which is considered to be Cartesian.

A key element of the analysis is a hypothesis that the medium of space is filled with what are termed gravitational microentities, which are much smaller than fundamental particles. In space each microentity is polarised in its own direction at random. Masses cause them to align, and it is this alignment which gives rise to gravitational attraction.

On this basis a mechanism for inertia is developed, using the connection between force, acceleration through the medium of space and electromagnetic radiation. Parallels are drawn between this analysis of gravity and electric and magnetic phenomena. All these concepts are then combined in a model which encompasses all levels of mass from subatomic particles to astronomical masses. Finally, it is speculated that mass itself may ultimately consist of electric charges.

Tests are proposed to link the phenomena and their interactions, and shed light on the fundamental nature of the medium of space.

1. Introduction

Gravity is the force of attraction between bodies with the property of mass. Given the definition of mass, the force of gravitational attraction between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses. The gravitational force between them is also proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance separating them.

So if

§         m1 and m2 are the magnitudes of the masses of two bodies which can be treated as point masses,

§         r is the distance between the points, and

§         G is a constant of proportionality,

then according to Newton’s Law of Universal Gravitation, the force of attraction F between them is given by the equation:

Newton used his Law to make extremely accurate predictions of the orbits of planets in the solar system, and it was later confirmed by static experiments in the laboratory.

The force of gravitational attraction links the two masses through the medium of space. It is an interaction between the two masses. The force acts in a straight line, point mass to point mass. It is not influenced by the force of gravitational attraction between either of these two masses and another point mass m3 i.e. by m1m3 or m2m3. Neither is it influenced by the gravitational attraction between m3 and another mass m4 i.e. by m3m4.

The relationship of F to r may be explored by differentiation in the usual way. Thus as the distance of separation r increases, F decreases according to the relationship:

or simplifying

This has the form of a hyperbola with the axes as asymptotes. As r tends to zero, the rate of change of F with distance increases rapidly, and at r = 0 it would become infinite, except that it never touches the asymptote. As r tends to infinity, the rate of change of F with distance would become zero, except that it never touches the axis.

If the distance r is increasing with time, the rate of change with respect to time can be calculated from the usual relationship

However, this is based on the assumption, which is inherent in the laws of motion, that expanding the distance between the two masses is like propagation from a single point; the force would in some way propagate from one point mass, so that the distance increased with respect to that mass, which therefore provided the degree of freedom. If this were so, the question would then be: what role would the other point mass have to play? The conclusion is that a different model is required.

One approach to developing a different model is as follows.

The equation for F has no cut-off point. All masses in the Universe have gravitational attraction for all other masses. The interaction exists, however small, whatever the distance.

However, if a mass changes position relative to other masses, it is inconceivable that its interaction should be felt instantaneously by all other masses, even those an infinite distance away in another part of the Universe. The hypothesis of this paper is that the influence of any change of position of one mass must therefore take a finite time to reach other masses.

The corollary is that the effects of gravitational change have a velocity. The assumption must be that this velocity is the same in every part of the Universe. The only conceivable velocity which such a Universal phenomenon could have is the velocity of light through the medium of space.

From this basis it is possible to describe a simple model which may link the phenomena of gravitational attraction, inertia, electric charge, magnetism and electromagnetic radiation through a hypothetical medium of space, drawing on its characteristics as outlined in previous papers (1).

1. The Properties of Gravity

The equation for gravitational attraction implies that if bodies have mass, they must also have gravitational attraction for each other, and conversely, if bodies have gravitational attraction for each other, it is because they have the property of mass. The nature of the attractive forces of gravity is unknown. However, it is possible to make some inferences about the nature of the phenomenon of gravity.

The gravitational effect is linked by some physical phenomenon to points of mass. It must be so, because for any point mass the effect is proportional to the magnitude of the mass. If the effect did not impinge on the mass in some way, how could this occur?

The effect is isotropic and homogeneous through time and space. It forms a link from every point mass to every other point mass, wherever situated, and since in this analysis it takes time to reach other masses, it must also be homogeneous through time. The potential to form a link is not deflected or prevented by other masses or by any other phenomenon.

As a basis for analysis, it is useful to represent the potential to form gravitational links as emanations in all directions from a point mass, or in two dimensions, a circle, (Figure 1). Changes in such emanations would take time to reach other masses, and so they have a velocity.

The hypothesis is that a gravitational link between two masses becomes a force of attraction between them when gravitational emanations from both coincide in the straight line linking their centres (Figure 2). This particular coincidence of emanations has no influence on any other emanations from these masses.

The arrow with two heads represents gravitational attraction between the two masses. The assumption is that the gravitational force F is equal, opposite and of the same magnitude for both masses i.e. force is not dissipated in some way en route between masses; there is no loss due to, say, the spatial equivalent of friction of pulleys.

Thus the mass enters into any number of linkages with other masses on a one-to-one basis, representing forces of gravitational attraction. If all the point masses in the Universe were stationary relative to each other, a Universal network of such links could be drawn. Since the Universe is infinite, every arrow must eventually make contact with a mass at some distance, somewhere.

However, it is most unlikely that all masses in the Universe are ever stationary relative to each other.

1. Masses with Constant Velocity Relative to Each Other

The phenomenon of gravitational emanation must be a continuous process. However for the purposes of analysis, emanations which left a point mass at a particular instant of time may be considered in two dimensions as a circle around it. Particular emanations leaving at regular time-intervals would then form a series of concentric circles. If emanations from two masses at rest m1 and m2 are considered, they would appear as two series of concentric circles (Figure 3).

The spacings are chosen for the sake of convenience of representation, so that a whole number of rings covers the distance between the masses, but this is not a necessary condition for the effect to occur. Simultaneous emanations from each of the two masses would reach the other at the same time, because they travel over the same distance r, at the same speed through space, the speed of light. The strength of emanations would be proportional to their masses.

However, if gravity has a velocity, the effect of any change of position takes time to transmit to other masses. Thus if the mass m2 moves at a constant velocity relative to m1, the effect will take a finite time to make itself felt at m1. Figure 4 shows the circles emanating from m2 up to a radius ct to which the effect of movement has had time to spread at the speed of light.

The emanations from m2 impinge at a distance y on the initial line of gravitational attraction between the two masses. Suppose the emanation currently at distance y spreading at the speed of light reaches m1 at time t then

and so,

But both c and v are constant, and so a positive constant α may be introduced such that

from which

Since the velocity v is always less than c

The distance y is proportional to time.

If x is the distance travelled by m2 in time t, then

Substituting for t from (1),

The length y is therefore also proportional to the distance x travelled by m2 (Figure 5).

To complete the analysis for constant velocity, the distance z is the distance the gravitational effect has still to travel along the direction of the original vector. If

z = r – y

then

But

Substituting the gradient from (2) and –1 from above,

This is also a constant. The decrease of z is proportional to time and distance x travelled by m2 at constant velocity.

4.      Gravitational Effect of Constant Acceleration of a Mass

A similar argument applies if the mass m2 is accelerating through the medium of space, rather than moving at constant velocity. The distance travelled by m2 is given by the equation,

where u is the initial velocity and a is constant acceleration. If the initial velocity is zero, then,

Thus from Figure 4,

Therefore,

When a = 0, y = c, and the mass m2 travels towards m1 at the speed of light i.e. at constant velocity, which is consistent with Section 3.

Equation 3 is a complicated function with the form of a parabola. Substituting values of a in the equation, it can be seen that at low accelerations the distance travelled y is almost proportional to time. So at an acceleration of c/100 s-1, where c is the velocity of light through space, y is almost a straight line up to 10 light seconds. However, at an acceleration of c/10 s-1 divergences from linearity appear even within this timescale.

5.      Multiplication of Emanations

If gravitational emanations from a mass were forces, they would be additive; the forces between Mass A and Mass B would be the sum of their separate forces.

However, the force of gravitation requires the product of their individual masses. The emanations from one mass seem to enhance the emanations from the other in proportion to their masses. This may be envisaged as follows (Figure 6).

The proposal of this paper is that the links are formed by attractive forces between very small gravitational entities which fill the medium of space. These gravitational microentities must be very small, because they fill the space between the smallest particles of mass without being lumpy i.e.the path between two of the smallest particles of mass must be indistinguishable from any other path between two such particles. It cannot in some way squeeze through a gap between gravitational microentities.

A gravitational microentity may be envisaged as a sphere which contains a gravitational pole depicted as an arrow. If microentities are not part of the gravitational attraction between two masses, the orientation of the arrows may be considered as random, so that individual attractions would be cancelled out in the bulk. The presence of the two masses causes the poles of the microentities between them to align in the same sense along the line connecting the masses. The assumption is that there is a force of attraction between opposite poles, while remaining non-committal as to its nature (Figure 7).

Each line in Figure 6 then contains both polar alignments, since it a two way link.

Such a mechanism also permits, in principle at least, the redirection or reorientation of forces as in Figure 8. Small differences of orientation of axes between adjacent microentities provide a mechanism for curvature, as in accelerating bodies.

The establishment of a gravitational link therefore requires rotation of microentities about their axes, rather than their translation. This phenomenon establishes the link at the speed of light.

Unit masses establish a single line of mutual attraction between them consisting of linked opposing poles. An increase of a unit of mass at either end produces another line for each line which already exists. This doubles the force of gravitational attraction, so that it is proportional to mass, which is what is required.

For unit point masses the links are parallel lines, and so they may take place in two dimensions. For larger masses there will be more links, so that they are in three dimensions. If there is a certain amount of divergence of alignment of the microentities surrounding the link at each stage of its progress between masses, this would result in a splaying out of the effect of the alignment, an increase in the area affected at each point. This area would be proportional to distance, and so to the square of the distance travelled, which is an inverse square law.

This sort of polarisation mechanism allows links to cross each other with only one point of disruption, and even this can be addressed by resolution of the directions of vectors.

There remains the question of how the chains stick to masses at both ends, but this is the same for any force of gravitational attraction. It defines the nature of mass.

A previous paper proposed that electromagnetic radiation was emitted because of electrodynamic induction in the medium of space caused by the acceleration of electrons in bonds between particles as they oscillated back and forth (2). The oscillation produced a quantum of radiation in the form of a rotating electromagnetic dipole. The rate of rotation of the dipole was characteristic of the particular bond, which is why it was emitted as a specific quantity of energy, a quantum.

The paper quoted above (1) proposed that masses moving at speeds comparable to the speed of light also caused the emission of quanta of radiation by a similar mechanism, which dissipated some of the energy pumped in to produce the high velocity. This is the sort of effect observed with synchroton radiation.

It is noted from the preceding analysis that, when a speed is imposed on the effect of gravity, a constant velocity of a mass produces quite a different vector from acceleration through the medium of space. A constant velocity produces straight lines, whereas acceleration produces curves of increasing curvature at its maximum. Such curvature may be considered to represent distortion of the medium of space.

It is proposed here that this curvature accounts for the difference between the effects of constant velocity and acceleration through the medium of space in the generation of electromagnetic radiation by the motion of masses. Constant velocity does not cause electromagnetic radiation to be emitted. Acceleration causes the emission of radiation in the form of quanta of energy of a magnitude which depends on the velocity at which acceleration takes place. Since increasing rates of acceleration cause both increasing energy of quanta and increasing curvature, it seems reasonable to associate the two phenomena.

Some qualification of the terms velocity and acceleration is necessary. In the preceding analysis the velocity of a mass may be relative to another mass or relative to the medium of space. In both cases the resultant sum of vectors is still a constant velocity. This does not need elaboration, because no radiation is emitted.

However, acceleration must be specified relative to the medium of space, because the radiation emitted is characteristic of the velocity through the medium of space at the instant at which acceleration takes place. If the analysis is to hold good throughout the entire Universe, it is necessary to know how velocity at any point relates to the standard, which is designated as zero velocity on Earth.

Given these conditions, the conclusion is that distortion of the medium of space through curvature, forces reordering and the emission of electromagnetic energy. The more severe the distortion, the more drastic the reordering and the higher the energy of the quantum emitted, which equates to a shorter wavelength.

Conversely, as the curvature decreases and the strain on the medium of space is relaxed, there is no emission of radiation. Therefore deceleration does not cause the emission of quanta of electromagnetic radiation, which is in agreement with the classical models of atomic structure.

A model based on gravitational microentities suggests a possible mechanism for redshift. A previous paper proposes that the increase of wavelength of light from stars may be caused by slowing down of the rotation of electromagnetic dipoles during their passage through space, rather than by the movement of stars (3). It is easier to envisage gravitational microentities, rather than empty space, as a possible cause of this slowing down. The model also provides a connection with redshift caused by the gravity of very great masses, the Einstein redshift. This could indicate something about the nature of gravitational microentities, if they exist.

The concept of producing radiation by putting a transparent medium under strain is reminiscent of Cerenkov radiation.

7.      Inertia

Combination of the preceding analyses leads to a possible mechanism to explain inertia. Inertia is resistance to acceleration. The problem with devising a mechanism to explain inertia is to know the cause of the resistance. Yet acceleration of mass certainly needs the application of force to overcome inertia. Moreover, acceleration requires ever increasing force to achieve as the velocity approaches the speed of light.

It is proposed in this paper that inertia is caused by the redistribution of energy by gravity and its dissipation as electromagnetic radiation, which is absorbed elsewhere. The proposed mechanism is as follows.

Acceleration of a mass causes changes in the gravitational forces of attraction with all other masses in the Universe at a rate and of a magnitude derived in the preceding analysis. These forces cause changes of the velocities of other masses i.e. accelerations, resulting in emissions of quanta of electromagnetic radiation, after which the masses settle down to new constant velocities. These emissions depend on the acceleration caused in all the particles affected, and on their velocity through the medium of space at the instant at which emission occurs. The emissions from one mass are absorbed by other masses in the Universe in a cascade, so that energy is conserved.

The largest quantum is emitted by the mass undergoing primary acceleration. The other quanta are progressively smaller, depending on the inverse square of the distances of the secondary masses from the primary mass.

It may appear that the cascade of aliquots of the energy associated with acceleration means that they are transformed into electromagnetic radiation by different masses at different times, because of the velocity of gravity. However, the electromagnetic radiation from the primary mass will spread as fast as gravitational change itself. Everything arrives together. What is true is that changes of gravitational forces and electromagnetic quanta always spread faster than masses move, because mass cannot attain the velocity of light.

This simultaneity agrees with the suggestion previously made (3) that electromagnetic quanta are not energy, but transmitters of energy. They manifest themselves as energy when they are absorbed by a body. This absorption will take place at the same time as gravitational change reaches the body.

In the same way it is argued that gravitational forces are transmitters of energy. They cannot be a form of energy itself, not even potential energy, or there would be a limit to the number of masses with which any mass could interact. Moreover there would be limitless energy associated with the acceleration of a single mass.

8.      The Electric Parallel

There is an obvious parallel between gravity and electric and magnetic phenomena, because the equations which describe them have the same form as that for the Universal Law of Gravitation i.e.

where:

§         Q1 and Q2 are electric charges,

§         K0 is the permittivity, and

§         d is the distance between the charges.

The law was confirmed by measurements made at rest in the laboratory. The properties of static electric charges were investigated, apparently independently of the bodies on which they were supported, except that these had to be conductors or non-conductors as appropriate.

This equation too could be differentiated in the same way as that for gravity to give the rate of change of the electrical force between two point charges with respect to the distance between them.

The same logic applies to suggest that the effect of any change of distance between the charges on their force of attraction or repulsion travels at the speed of light. The effect of interacting electric charges could be regarded as emanations from point charges in the same way as point masses have been described above as having gravitational emanations.

However, there are significant differences between the systems which characterise gravity and charge.

§         There are two types of charge, formed by the separation of positive from negative in neutral materials.

§         As a result, for every positive charge there is a negative charge somewhere i.e. they cancel each other out in the system as a whole. The phenomenon concerns the separation of charges rather than a single species of charges.

§         Charges are thought to come as multiples of a basic unit, which is the charge on the electron.

§         Every charge attracts every other opposite charge and repels every other like charge, because the equation contains no cut-off. Apart from positive and negative, charges are not differentiated.

§         Charges on conductors are mobile and superficial. The same may be true of particles.

§         As a result a body can be shielded from electric fields by conductors, which conduct the fields around the body. This is quite different from gravity, from which there is no shield. There are no mobile particles of gravity.

§         Permittivity is an indication of the effect on the medium of space of the emanations from an electric charge. It can be regarded as an indication of tension or alignment in the medium of space.

§         Permittivity of non-conducting materials is measured in relation to permittivity through the medium of space. Electric emanations are diminished by interaction with the atoms of which non-conductors are composed. This interaction has three components. First, it includes interaction with the medium of space which fills the entire volume of atoms, and which is the same as the medium of space outside the atom. Secondly, it also includes interaction with the orbiting electrons. Thirdly, it includes the interaction between electronic structure and the medium of space inside the atom, because the electrons themselves will interact with each other and influence the medium of space in their own right.

§          There is no gravitational permittivity of materials; there is no gravitational dielectric. Masses are equivalent and additive for the purposes of gravitational attraction. Their equivalent point mass is considered to act at their centre of gravity. This results from the ‘immobility’ of gravity ‘particles’.

§         In classical analysis there is no electric equivalent of inertia.

§         Movement of electric charges reveals underlying electrical, magnetic and electromagnetic phenomena in a way which does not occur with gravity. In a sense electric charge is a blanket phenomenon disguising underlying phenomena which become apparent only at high velocities.

In the classical world the movement of electric charges is current electricity. Electric current occurs only in conductors. Electric current is the movement of electric charges in the form of electrons through the body of a conductor. Electric current generates a ‘magnetic field’ in a plane perpendicular to the direction of flow of an electric current in a straight conductor.

The field is detected by deflection of a magnet i.e. the mechanical effect on a magnetised material. Magnetism may be considered as permanent or semi-permanent distortion of the electronic structure of a material. Thus electric current flowing through one material, a conductor, interacts through the medium of space with the electronic structure of another material, in the form of the magnet. The corollary of this is that current-carrying conductors interact with each other through the medium of space, with the result that they exert forces on each other. Hence electrodynamics.

The effect of electric charges in these conditions takes place between materials. The effects are generated by the movement of electrons at what has been calculated to be a very slow pace of the order of a metre a minute. Increasing potential difference simply increases the number of charges, electrons, which move i.e. the current. It does not necessarily make them move faster. If there was any time-interval resulting from a velocity of propagation of electric emanations, it would never be noticed in these conditions.

Nevertheless, the generation of electric fields around a conductor can be described by the same sort of diagrams as used in Figure 3 for gravity. If charges are moving with respect to each other, and the propagation of electric emanations also has a velocity, the diagram in Figure 4 and the analysis that goes with it should also be applicable. The corollary would be that the ‘field’ effect observed with electric current should depend on the acceleration of charges rather than their velocity. It would, of course, also depend on the number of charges, which is the ‘current’.

It is possible that the models may be reconciled as follows. The flow of electrons through a conductor meets with resistance. Any attempt to make them move faster seems to push the moving electrons out onto the surface of the conductor as a shell. It seems likely that the ‘velocity’ of electrons inside a conductor is comprised of repeated accelerations and obstructions which bring them to a halt, after which they accelerate again. It is this acceleration which produces distortion in the medium of space inside the atoms of the conductor, thus resulting in the ‘field’ around the conductor. It is this field which causes electrodynamic force.

The parameters which are observed in the laboratory are aggregate results. Electric current is the sum of the individual charges which move. The ‘velocity’ of the current is the weighted average of their individual accelerations from rest, which drop back to zero as they meet obstructions, and then start the process of accelerating again. The resistance of the conductor is the average level of obstruction which they meet.

To take the argument a step further, the electrons do not meet obstructions in the sense of collisions. Rather they undergo orbital interactions with every atomic shell they meet. Their momentum is caused by the potential difference. Lost momentum manifests itself as heat, which is ‘conducted’ by atomic electron shells. Hence the slow progress of electrons in the body of conductors. At some stage they give up and migrate to the surface where orbital interaction is halved.

The exceptions to this obstruction process are the electrons which orbit nuclei. They circle the nuclei unimpeded after they have agreed their positions relative to each other and to their nuclei. (This cannot be entirely true, because their interaction must play a large part in determining the cohesion between atoms in the form of physical properties such as tensile strength, even without the complication of forming compounds).

Nevertheless it is a reasonable approximation to suggest that they orbit unimpeded, and so they can reach velocities through the medium of space which are a substantial fraction, say a tenth, of the speed of light. It is their acceleration between orbits of constant velocity which causes the emission of electromagnetic quanta, as a result of their interaction with the medium of space. This interaction generates quanta in the form of rotating electromagnetic dipoles (2).

The analysis of gravitational emanations suggests that this too may be caused by a curved path through the medium of space. Since the electrons have mass, they also emit gravitational emanations, which must travel concurrently with electric emanations, because they both have the same velocity through the medium of space, the velocity of light.

Although the emphasis has been on electric emanations, these are always accompanied by magnetic emanations when electric charges are moving at high velocity through the medium of space i.e. electromagnetic radiation. They appear as two sides of the same coin, and so travel through space at the same velocity.

Electric charges are forced onto the surface of conductors by high velocity. In this condition they may then be caused to accelerate. This acceleration takes place in, or adjoining, the free medium of space, and causes the emission of electromagnetic radiation by a process of electrodynamic induction in just the same way as the electrons of an atomic shell, but on the surface. The resulting rotating electromagnetic dipole is ejected from the surface of the conductor by magnetic forces of repulsion at the speed of light.

The process can be repeated by causing the electrical charges to oscillate on the surface of the conductor which becomes an ‘aerial’. The stream of quanta emitted is then electromagnetic radiation. The energy, and so frequency, of quanta depends on the acceleration achieved, which in turn depends on the frequency of oscillation of electrons, as well as the dimensions of aerials.

Electromagnetic radiation according to this model is the effect of charge on the medium of space disengaged from the effect of mass. It does not entail the transport  of electrons. It is therefore not restricted to the classical aliquot of charge i.e. the charge which the electron carries.

If this is so, there seems to be no reason why motion should not produce separation of charges which have magnitudes less than that of the electron, even inside atoms and particles not subject to electrical resistance i.e. having got past the barrier of electron shells. This sort of effect may be envisaged for protons in atomic nuclei. It may also be envisaged for neutrons, which though having no net charge, may nevertheless comprise a balance of smaller, opposite charges, separated inside the particle by motion. Otherwise it is difficult to imagine a mechanism for the decay of neutrons into charged entities within minutes of abstracting them from atomic nuclei.

9.      Discussion

Analyses based on the hypothesis of gravitational emanations serve to illustrate the effect of imposing a velocity on the propagation of gravitational change, and highlight the difference between velocity and acceleration of mass through the medium of space in respect of curvature. Curvature produces effects which look like those conventionally drawn for electric or magnetic lines of force. However, there are qualifications to be made.

First, the mass which is moving m2 is unlikely to be starting from rest at the point of nearest approach to mass m1. It is almost certain that all masses are moving, though at different velocities. As two masses approach each other on a non-collision course, they are drawn together by the increasing force of gravity between them, and then spin off as they part. Both masses change direction without the system losing energy, like astronomical bodies in space.

This is a sort of orbital interaction in which masses waltz around each other. In fact in a scenario in which all masses have velocities of different magnitudes and alignments, like Brownian motion, all masses are influencing the trajectories of all other masses. Orbital interaction must be the rule. Billiard ball straight line velocities of masses are either theoretical or approximations appropriate to local conditions, though perhaps very good approximations.

This is not to suggest that space itself is curved. Indeed it is considered that the term is meaningless; space has the expected three orthogonal axes, each stretching off to infinity in both directions. It simply means that masses find it difficult to move in straight lines, especially when they are close, because of their gravitational attraction. A similar argument applies to electric charges and magnetic poles.

However, there is no reason to postulate that electromagnetic emissions radiate in anything other than straight lines, unless they are deflected. Nor is there any reason to believe that the gravitational forces between masses at rest or the electric forces between point charges at rest are anything other than straight lines. It is movement that changes the picture, because the adjustment of forces takes time.

Secondly, the notional application of force to illustrate the effect of acceleration of mass requires an equal and opposite notional force somewhere else in the Universe. Something must apply the force, and this must ultimately be a mass, whatever the means by which force is conveyed; the source of the force is also part of the system. The source-mass must also accelerate and convey forces to other masses through gravitational interaction. This will also generate electromagnetic radiation, which is dissipated accordingly.

Thirdly, when thought experiments are devised which involve the introduction of mass into, or its removal from, a system, it must take account of the fact that these cannot happen instantaneously. All movement of mass must take place at a velocity less than the speed of light. Changes in the forces of gravity between masses in the system realign at the speed of light. Nothing is instantaneous.

It is tempting to associate the concept of gravitational microentities in the whole of the medium of space with electromagnetism, if their tension produces electromagnetic radiation, by analogy with electrodynamic induction. Certainly the new proposed theory of light suggests that rotating electromagnetic dipoles must either travel through or be transported by the medium of space, and their frequency of rotation is very gradually reduced en route. However, electromagnetic radiation is not known to support forces, let alone line up. Rather it consists of electromagnetic resonances.

This leads to the question of what interacts with what in the transmission of any forces. Bodies are composed of atoms with shells of electrons. When masses collide, these ‘shells’ are the first to come into ‘contact’. The repulsion of these negative shells occurs before the nuclei, where almost all mass resides, can approach each other.

The distance between the centre of the atom and its electron shells is much greater than the distance between the centre of the atom and the loci of gravitational and electric forces in the nuclei, even if these are oscillating. As electronic shells interact, the associated nuclei and their masses and charges will still be far away, and their effect on collision very much less, as described by the differential of the inverse square law. As argued above, the interaction of electronic shells is likely to take the form of interacting orbits. Similarly the attachments to bodies are likely to involve interacting orbits, whatever link is formed from these attachments to other bodies through the medium of space.

Much of the analysis fundamentally revolves around the difference between the parts of a system and the whole. What has been measured and described in equations has of necessity been characteristic of bulk materials and phenomena on a human scale i.e. charges and masses at low velocities. Results are therefore aggregates which may conceal the behaviour of the fundamental subsystems. This is also true of timescales, where it is only recently that extremely short and extremely long elapsed times have begun to come under scrutiny. In fact this has been a consideration only since the velocity of light was established.

Nevertheless, the scheme described in the analysis of this paper is just as applicable to astrophysics as billiards. The immense distances of the Universe must be seen from the perspective of both a finite velocity of light and a finite velocity of propagation of gravitational changes. The observed movement of bodies relates to occurrences many light years away, and it has already been suggested that the inverse square law for light may need some qualification at such distances (2).

However, there is now the further qualification which may also need to be taken into account in interpreting observations: the velocity at which changes of gravitational forces between bodies separated by light-years or even light-seconds may take effect, and the consequence for distant observation.

There is the further consideration that electromagnetic radiation produced by acceleration of masses, and explosions, which may amount to the same thing, redistributes energy to other parts of the Universe, a form of regeneration and redistribution, which complements the redistribution of masses.

The analysis is no less applicable at the scale of the atom, because particle velocities are an appreciable fraction of the speed of light. The hypothesis of a medium of space also applies within atoms (4). It fills the space between electrons, and between electrons and nuclei. It also fills the space within nuclei, between protons and neutrons. It must also fill the space between the fundamental particles of which they too are composed. The only volume which it does not fill is within the most fundamental particles, because by definition they have no inner structure to fill.

The further hypothesis of this paper is that the medium of space is filled with gravitational microentities, and so these must also fill the space inside atoms. Since both electromagnetic radiation and gravitational change propagate at a finite velocity through the medium of space i.e. the velocity of light in vacuo, this must also be true within the atom.

Electrons circle the nucleus at velocities calculated to be about a tenth of the speed of light. Their acceleration as they change orbits when falling back towards the nucleus causes the emission of electromagnetic radiation through their interaction with the medium of space within the atom (4).

The forces of attraction between nucleus and electron are both gravitational and electric with its associated magnetic component. It is suggested that gravity should not be dismissed out of hand at this stage. If changes of gravitational attraction have a velocity, the consequence is that the orbiting of an electron, comprising both velocity and acceleration under suitable circumstances, takes a finite time to have an effect on the nucleus. This applies also to electric and magnetic attraction and repulsion.

Velocity effects do not stop there. The rate at which gravitational and electrical changes permeate structures also affects the components of nuclei: proton with proton, neutron with neutron and proton with neutron. They are all separated by the medium of space. They all have velocities and accelerations through the medium of space. If the medium of space is filled with gravitational microentities, all these particles travel through and spin surrounded by the microentities. Fundamental particles must also travel through and spin surrounded by such microentities, which is why the microentities were postulated to be so small.

All changes take time. Velocities require time by definition. Time is therefore inherent in the structure of the atom, as it is in the interaction of masses at all scales from fundamental particles to galaxies and their clusters.

To sum up, the basic theses of this approach to a unifying theory are that:

§         mass, gravity and inertia are related through the medium of space.

§         acceleration of mass through the medium of space is related to electromagnetic radiation, depending on the velocity through the medium of space at which it occurs.

§         acceleration, gravity, mass and electromagnetic radiation are related to inertia.

§         force, which is defined as happening to mass, is also related to electric charge and magnetic poles.

§         electromagnetism, as the term implies, is related to the acceleration of electric charges.

§         even permanent magnetism may be considered as a distortion of electric structures frozen permanently, or more accurately semi-permanently, into materials, which therefore have the property of mass.

Thus the essence of the problem is how masses and charges relate, mass to mass, charge to charge and mass to charge, as functions of velocity and acceleration through the medium of space.

That requires more experimental data.

10.  Experimental Tests

Orthogonal relationships between phenomena such as the effect of charge and the effect of mass are not easy to arrange. However, the logical requirements are clear, even if difficult to achieve.

Experimental confirmation of the hypotheses on which the model rests fall under the following headings.

a.      Confirmation of the classical relationships at high velocities and accelerations, starting at the very beginning.

The object of confirming classical relationships is to provide a sound basis for subsequent investigations of interactions.

1. First it is necessary to compare atomic masses by techniques which do not involve electromagnetism or high velocities, because they may introduce interactions. Although the effects may be small, they may obscure more fundamental relationships such as nuclear mass defects which are the basis of the curve of binding energy. This is believed to be a relativistic effect by which mass converts into energy. This is incompatible with the proposed model.

What is necessary is a mechanical method which goes back to Newton’s definition and relates mass directly to mechanical force and acceleration measured in fundamental units. The curve of binding energy might turn out to be quite different, or even disappear entirely.

The same is needed for electrons, protons and neutrons. Electron mass was first measured by electrodynamic methods, which may also introduce interactions between mass, electric and magnetic phenomena. For instance, to put it at its most basic level, electrons can be used in bulk to perform mechanical work e.g. drive a ‘water’ wheel, which may allow their mass to be derived from their number and loss of momentum. Similar measurements may be made for protons and neutrons.

Deductions made from measurements of absorption by, and displacement of individual particles from, materials may lead to confounding of effects, because, as argued above, the mechanism will probably be orbital interaction. Some of the momentum of the orbit may confound the observed result. For instance, early experiments with the reflection of single protons from a material produced several different types of hyperbolic trajectory, which does not look at all like billiard ball behaviour. The same may apply to experiments to measure the mass of the neutron.

2. Given firm mechanical masses, and mechanical forces, it needs to be re-established that the force of gravitational attraction is proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance between masses at rest. The value of the constant G can then be recalculated.

There may be no option but to accept that the inverse square law applies without a cut-off point, although it is possible that there is astronomical evidence to suggest anomalies. However, if the constant G is found to depend on velocity and acceleration when masses move at a substantial fraction of the speed of light, this would indicate a link with other phenomena which vary with velocity and acceleration through the medium of space, such as emission of electromagnetic radiation.

It also needs to be confirmed beyond doubt that the gravitational attraction between two masses m1m2 is not affected by the presence of another mass m3, or by two masses i.e. the interactions m1m3 and m3m4, which is one of the basic assumptions.

Given also the standard unit of charge, that carried by the electron, the same procedure is needed for charge as used for mass. It may be necessary to assume the inverse square law at large distances. However, if the permittivity changed at high velocities and accelerations, it would connect the electric aspect of the medium of space with other phenomena which vary with velocity and acceleration. This would encompass the magnetic aspects.

b.      Interaction of phenomena

The following tests are indicative of the sort of experimental verification which could be attempted. Some of the tests have already been set out in the previous papers quoted.

1. The first tests are the measurement of inertial resistance curves for masses of different magnitudes and charges. It may not be possible to measure inertial resistance curves for uncharged masses, though this would be the ideal, because of the problem of accelerating them sufficiently for them to emit electromagnetic radiation which can be detected and characterised.

However, it is possible to measure curves for series of bodies which may be orthogonal enough to allow separation of mass and charge effects e.g.

§            electron, positron, proton

§            m+, m2+ etc

§            m-, m2- etc

where m+ and m- are the first ions in homologous series with the same mass but increasing charges. It is possible to repeat the procedure with ions having larger masses, to extract the mass effect.

Measurement comprises acceleration from a range of known velocities from zero to the speed of light, and analysis of electromagnetic radiation emitted. The wavelength of radiation emitted may depend both on the velocity from which acceleration occurred and on the internal bond structure of the particle. For identical structures, say in ions of the same element, it may be possible to extract the effect of different states of charge.

These are mass and charge effects on electromagnetic radiation in the medium of space.

2. A different approach is to look for possible effects of mass, electric fields and magnetic fields on light. Such effects have been postulated in astrophysics to explain unusual redshifts. However, this experiment takes place on Earth. Apparatus and procedure are as follows:

§           A kilometre-long tube, sufficiently evacuated, with identical parabolic mirrors facing each other at each end.

§           The curvature of the mirrors is such that they reflect light repeatedly between them to form a total path length which is a large number of kilometres e.g. 106.

§           Injection at one mirror of a burst of laser light shorter than the time it takes light to travel from one mirror to the other. This ensures that the output at the end of the total path length is not a mixture.

§           Absorbent surroundings to ensure that possible diffracted light is deflected away from the main beams travelling between the mirrors or behind the mirrors.

From a knowledge of the path length and times it is possible to calculate the velocity of light along the path. By mixing inputs and outputs it may be possible to obtain a beat frequency which shows any change of wavelength that might have occurred during passage through the medium of space on Earth.

The measurements are repeated with

§      A large mass in the form of a non-conducting sphere polished to reject reflections, close to the line of the beams, midway between the mirrors. This may show whether mass deflects light. The measurements are repeated with four such masses close packed with centres in a plane perpendicular to the line of the beams, such that the beams pass through an interstice between balls. This may show whether the velocity and wavelength have been affected by mass.

§      The same could be repeated with an intense magnetic field at the centre instead of the mass.

§       The magnetic field could be replace by an electric field.

§      The measurements could be repeated with both masses and fields to see whether any effects are additive, or multiply.

This experiment would show how mass, electric fields and magnetic fields relate to each other in the transmission of electromagnetic radiation through the medium of space.

If effects are found, it is possible that intense light or mass may affect permittivity and permeability. Similar experiments can be envisaged to see whether large masses have any effect on the strength or direction of electric fields.

To complete the ringing of changes, it is possible that the gravitational attraction between masses may be affected by intense electric or magnetic fields. If so, there would be no firm place on which to stand.

Finally, the experiment uses the medium of space on Earth i.e. with any distortions which that may introduce. For full effect the experiment ought to be repeated out in space, both inside and outside the solar system, to avoid similar distortions by the Sun!

c.       Subatomic and fundamental particles

These experiments have used either bulk effects or accessible particles, but they must also apply to subatomic and fundamental particles. It would be useful to know, for example, what sort of electromagnetic radiation the acceleration of a quark would give rise to.

They also concern the translation of particles through the medium of space. However, if the effects exist, it is certain that they would also apply to the spinning of particles with structure on their axes. It may not be possible to isolate particular axial spins for examination, but it is possible that emissions from accelerating particles starting from different velocities through the medium of space may be different for the two spins i.e. spinning around the x-axis, if this is the direction of acceleration, or spinning around the y-axis or z-axis.

The suggestion is that all particles, subatomic and fundamental are spinning all the time, perhaps for stability, perhaps in response to everything else.

d.      Modelling

There is scope for modelling the transmission of forces by lines of gravitational, and for that matter, electric and magnetic, forces under the condition of curvature i.e. motion. The force must be the same in each link all the way along the chain, but how would curvature involving fractional non-alignments of force ‘arrows’ add as vectors over the distance of separation?

At the end of this set of tests there should be a clearer model of the relationship between gravity, electric charge, electromagnetism and the medium of space.

11.  The Ultimate Speculation

The ultimate speculation put forward in this paper is that all the forces of nature will eventually be found to be fundamentally caused by electric charge, including the attractive force of gravity.

The phenomena which are usually observed are confused by the electron. Electrons surround all atoms; they are the first and possibly only loci of interaction between atoms. The form of the interaction is orbital. They form covalent bonds when they share orbits. They form ions when they redistribute between atoms. They translate the movement of atoms, which we call heat. Their movement is transmitted to nuclei by electric, magnetic and gravitational forces.

In some materials they stay put, which gives rise to what we call insulators. Materials in which a few are free to move, we call conductors. Nevertheless both insulators and conductors are sheathed in electrons. When electrons move under a potential difference through a conductive material, they constitute an electric current, and the resistance they meet is transmitted throughout the body of the material as heat. When they are caused to move faster than this mechanism can accommodate, they migrate to the surface and generate electromagnetic radiation.

All bulk measurements take place in a sea of electrons which surrounds positively charged nuclei. There is no reason except the ubiquity of electrons to believe that the charge carried by the electron is the minimum charge possible within the nuclei. If we believe that matter consists of increasingly smaller species of particle bound together, the particles which are not accessible may possess charges smaller than that of the electron. The only provision is that they all add up to zero i.e. neutrality.

The mobility of electrons explains the phenomenon of shielding from electric fields. Electrons intercept electric emanations and redirect them around the surface of a conductor.

Nevertheless in spite of the repulsion which electrons cause, all bodies with the property of mass are subject to gravitational attraction. How then could this be reconciled with the shielding effect of electrons? The suggestion here is that the gravitational attraction of masses consists of electric/magnetic emanations which are not intercepted by electrons i.e. they penetrate the electron shield, perhaps by polarising it.

For atom-like particles this is shown diagrammatically in Figure 9.

Charges are mobile. Unlike charges are drawn towards each other, and form the force of gravitational attraction. The other charges are repelled to the other sides of the masses. Charges remain aligned through the medium of space even though masses spin, because charge is mobile on their surfaces.

The gravitational/electric/magnetic emanations are not filtered out by electronic structures at the surface of either mass. In some way they penetrate between the electrons to make a connection with nuclei.

This leads to the somewhat alarming corollary that mass itself may be a separation of charges at some level. In everyday life we recognise mass by its gravitational effect or by changes in momentum. In physics its defining characteristic is inertia, which is recognised by the need for force to produce acceleration.

If the preceding analysis is accepted, the process of accelerating a mass distributes force by changes of gravitational, electric and magnetic emanations. The distributed forces cause a cascade of accelerations among other masses which result in electromagnetic radiation. Each quantum of electromagnetic radiation is mopped up by another mass through a process involving resonance with the structure, and so the process can begin again.

The force which produced the initial acceleration of the mass, it has been argued, is an interaction of gravitational, electric and magnetic emanations. These interact with structures of orbiting charges in the mass at various levels of magnitude i.e. electronic, nuclear, and fundamental particles so to cause acceleration. It is these structures which we call mass.

If gravity, electric fields and magnetic fields are the different manifestations of the same fundamental phenomenon which we are able to observe, there is no need for the intervention of a property called mass, except for convenience. Mass becomes a useful peg for us on which to hang everything else.

If this speculation turns out to be valid, the entire Universal system is composed of three subsystems: charge, the medium of space and radiation. First, what we call a mass is an association of charges of different magnitudes rotating in orbits of different diameters around their opposites: wheels within wheels within wheels. The whole charge-associate is held together by the forces of attraction of opposite electric charges. The charge-associate is neutral as a whole. Addition, subtraction and movement of electrons orbiting at the maximum diameter form ions and electric current.

Charges exist in the medium of space, which permeates everything. Charge-associates interact with the medium of space through a process of induction when they accelerate, and produce the third component, radiation, which comprehends gravitational, electric and magnetic phenomena. Acceleration of charge-associates generates energy locally. Radiation transports energy at the speed of light to other charge-associates, which accelerate and radiate in their turn. Thus there is a continuous process of redistribution between charge-associates.

Energy results from the acceleration of charge-associates. It is not the same as charge-associates. Thus energy and ‘mass’ can never be equivalent. Energy is transported between charge-associates by radiation in its broadest sense in the process of redistribution.

Similarly charge-associates may break into smaller charge-associates, as long as they are not at the level of a single fundamental particle to begin with, if such a thing exists. They may also come together to form larger charge-associates, which we call atoms, compounds and materials.

This leads on to the thought that what are observed as particles are in fact small, self-contained charge associates in their own right: orbiting and spinning charges, a small version of what we may consider to be the structure of the atom or the solar system, but all electric. Charge-associates at the level of particles may be unbalanced electrically by the addition or subtraction of additional charges.

This speculative model embodies the endless cycle of the Universe, perhaps along the lines of the paper with which this series began (5).

However that may be, at the end of all the analysis, if successful, we will still not know what electric charge is. To coin a phrase, we make the measurements, but what we measure, we know not.

Nor can we. That’s life!

A.C.Sturt

Churinga, Guildford UK

24 November 2003

References

1.      Mass in the Universal Inertial Field – A Revised Version by A. C. Sturt

18 Sep 2003 http://www.churingapublishing.com/numass_1.htm.

2.      The Nature of Light-- A Unified Theory of Rotating Electromagnetic Dipoles by A. C. Sturt 7 May 2003 http://www.churingapublishing.com/relite_1.htm.

3.      On the Nature of Things – A Time and Space Odyssey by A. C. Sturt 28 May 2003 http://www.churingapublishing.com/odyss_1.htm.

4.      An Electrodynamic Model of Atomic Structure by A. C. Sturt 3 Oct 2003 http://www.churingapublishing.com/dynamat_1.htm.

5.      The Timeless Universe I. A Model of Stochastic Regeneration and Redistribution by A. C. Sturt 21 Sep 2001 http://www.churingapublishing.com/timeless_1.htm.